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Lecture 7

EESA06 Lecture 7.docx

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 7 Page 1EESA06 Lecture 7 Galapos Islandsin Equador hotspotsHotspot trailsold dead volcanoes flat tops from erosion below seas level dead volcano Hotspotsmajority occur on oceanic plates Relative Ages of islands the youngest island above the hotspot eventually go under sea level systematic aging of the rocks as you go down the trail Gives us a clue of plate movement Bathymetricmap that shows water depths Islands after 3 million years become completely submerged Phreatomagmaticwatervolcanic activity violent releases Geologists like this area because there is No vegetationyoung landscape still actively evolving Barrel Cactus are the pioneerfirst plants grow in cracks of lavao Prickly pear cactus another pioneer plants eaten by giant tortoises evolution of long wooden stems to avoid being eateno Blue footed boobybird with nostrils underneath eyes due to evolution Aa lava rocky pohoehoe lava ropeyPyroclastic layers of ash that falls on the land that blows out underwater think of a snow avalanche that happens under waterlaminated sediments Scorialarge pieces of burnt rock found around cinder cones Trace fossiltrack of organism like footprints turtle tracks to lay eggs Rocks and Minerals Clues to Ancient Environments Lithificationto turn a sediment into rockCompactionto squeeze water and air out of somethingDifferences Between Rocks and Minerals Rockis a naturally formed consolidated material composed of grains of one or more mineralsMineralis a naturally occurring inorganic crystalline solid that has a definite chemical composition They are the building blocks of rocks Igneous rocksto be born of fire extrusive and intrusive Crystallographythe study of different shapes of crystal and diagnostic diff mineral typesMinerals 4500 different types butThe most important group are the silicate minerals containing silicon and oxygen and accounts for 90 of all minerals Few minerals dominate exo QuartzsilicaSiOsilicon plus oxygen 2o Olivine Mg Fe SiOmantle 4o Feldspars largest subgroup shiny field crystals common in shield rocks composite soil semiprecious stonescrust o Pyroxenes ex augiteo Mica o Clay minerals such as kaolinite montmorilloniteresult of weather of other minerals electrical properties dictate whether soil is fertile or not
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