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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 5 When oceans close is the dangerous volcanoes J because of subduction. Raeology J ability to flow, how easy does that magma flow? - Iceland is very fluid J not that dangerous, all gases come out - More viscosious - dangerous, stuff comes out J pyroclastic - Pyroclastic J broken by fire, rocks are shattered by eruptions and thrown up into air - Volcanic bombs or ash(is a misnomer - named improperly) o Italy thought it was coal burning The Green Areas J subduction back into the mantle - Friction (earthquakes), melting (volcanoes) - Similar to lava lamp The Pacific Ring of Fire: Tectonics of a closing ocean - Pacific Rim - Dense concentration of volcanes, major earthquakes, tsunamis Subduction: - The stars marks earthquakes - The deepest earthquakes are 700km down - JlL}ZZoZ}L[Ko]oolK}L - Magmatic Arc J a line of volcanoes directly above subduction zone - Oceanic crust J made out of basalt - Silicic magma - Sediment + seawater melted, reducing viscosiy of magma - Deep water trenches J ocean floor going down into subduction zone New Zealand: small island, exposed tip of a much larger land mass (Zealandia) - Red Boundary - Pacific plate and Austrailian Plate o Bottom: Austrailian Plate is being subducted under Pacific Plate o Top: Pacific Plate is being subducted under Austrailian Plate (older oceanic crust is heavier) o Middle: Obduction - Colliding continental crust together - Obduction J Himalayas, creating high mountains
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