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Lecture 7

Planet Earth-Lecture 7.docx

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Environmental Science

Lecture 7Rocks and mineralsQuiz mostly based on lecturePetrology rock study rocks and look on mineralogyRocks are the only record we have of old environments on EarthMoon rocks valuable rocks A lot are missing 3 sources US Apollo missions soviet union missions on land missions and meterorites crater impact on moon enter earths gravitational field 400 kg of rock have been brought back from the moon basalt and anorphositesimilar to what makes up Earths crust Theory that Moon originated from our planet by huge impact which detached part of our crust and mantle The rock cycle three main groups of rock sedimentary result of weathering and erosion of older rocks that produce sediments loose sediments like clay sand and boulders They get deposited in sedimentary basins Lake Ontariosedimentary basin Hudson Bay Atlantic ocean They get buried and go through lithification turn something into rockMany environments that sediments are moved and depositedType of sedimentary can tell ancient environment in which it was deposited in like picture post cards Rocks can undergo change due to heat and pressure to turn into metamorphic rock change in appearance Difficult group of rock to deal with and difficult to identify parent type because process of transformation can be profoundLow grade to high grade metamorphic rock Igneous rock two broad subdivisions intrusive never see light and cool underground cool slowly component crystals and component mineral have time to grow they are intruded into other rocks they are coarse grained Second type is magma cool quickly fine grained make it to earths surfaceBecause of plate tectonics all rocs can be uplifted eroded weathered and that produces sediments and whole cycle starts again Process does not always happen this way because sedimentary and metamorphic rock can be upliftedQuartz metamorphic rock can undergo several cyclesPoly cyclic grains go through more than one cycleAcasta nice famous rock and oldest in Canada 4 billion years old Tells us that rock cycle was operating 4 billion years ago Component grains give OLDER ages So poly cyclic grains already by 4 billion years agoWhat drives whole process Mantle convection radioactive decays When mantle breaks down produces heat and that in turn produces earths magnetic field creates protective shield All processes happens because of uranium decay in mantleOnce process stops what will the only process be Incoming meterorites How long will process keep going for another 4 billion years Earths life cycle half way throughPaleo environmental reconstruction how were rocs deposited What latitudes What water depth What organismsVeins run through limestone Black patch oil Rock has pore spaces and thats where oil accumulates Create oil reservoirs Petroleum geologistsA rock is a naturally formed consolidated material composed of grains of one or more mineralsA mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic crystalline solid that has a specific chemical composition They are the building blocks of rocks have specific shapeMinerals 4500 different types The most important group are silicate minerals containing silicon and oxygen and accounts for 90 of all minerals A few silicate minerals dominate quartz silica
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