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Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 7 Page 1 EESA06 Lecture 7 Galapos Islands J in Equador, hotspots - Hotspot trails J old dead volcanoes, flat tops (from erosion), below seas level, dead volcano - Hotspots J majority occur on oceanic plates - Relative Ages of islands: the youngest island above the hotspot, eventually go under sea level, systematic aging of the rocks as you go down the trail - Gives us a clue of plate movement - Bathymetric J map that shows water depths - Islands after 3 million years become completely submerged - Phreatomagmatic J water + volcanic activity, violent releases - Geologists like this area because there is No vegetation = young landscape, still actively evolving - Barrel Cactus are the pioneerfirst plants grow in cracks of lava, o Prickly pear cactus another pioneer plants, eaten by giant tortoises, evolution of long wooden stems to avoid being eaten o Blue footed booby J bird with nostrils underneath eyes, due to evolution - Aa lava (rocky), pohoehoe lava (ropey) - Pyroclastic layers of ash that falls on the land that blows out underwater, think of a Zsnow avalanche[ZZLZL water - laminated sediments - Scoria J large pieces of burnt rock found around cinder cones - Trace fossil J track of organism, like footprints, turtle tracks to lay eggs Rocks and Minerals: Clues to Ancient Environments - Lithification J to turn a sediment into rock - Compaction J to squeeze water and air out of something Differences Between Rocks and Minerals - Rock J is a naturally formed consolidated material, composed of grains of one or more minerals - Mineral J is a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid that has a definite chemical composition. They are the building blocks of rocks. - Igneous rocks J to be born of fire, extrusive and intrusive - Crystallography J the study of different shapes of crystal and diagnostic diff mineral types Minerals 4,500 different types but - The most important group are the silicate minerals containing silicon and oxygen and accounts for 90% of all minerals. Few minerals dominate ex: o Quartz J (silica = Si2 = silicon plus oxygen) o Olivine (Mg, Fe SiO 4 J mantle o Feldspars (largest subgroup, shiny field crystals, common in shield rocks, composite soil, semi- precious stones) - crust o Pyroxenes (ex: augite) o Mica o Clay minerals such as kaolinite, montmorillonite J result of weather of other minerals, electrical properties, dictate whether soil is fertile or not
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