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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 8: Geologic Time and Stratigraphy Stratigraphy is arranging rocks in some sort of logical sequence in terms of their age Strata simple means layer Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on top of mountains. Correlating the rocks seen in one location with rocks seen in another one, can be within a few kilometres or further apart. The idea is to find the contemporary environment in Canada (ancient environments) Dilvuim (meaning of a flood) Strict biblical interpretations of Earths history (rocks and landscapes result from Noahs flood) More than one flood recognized (new life created each time so each layer contains different forms) th Archbishop Ussher 1581-1656: declared in 1625 that earth formed at 9 am on October 26 4004 B.C He based this on counting generations in the bible. Georgius Agricola 1494-1555 was the father of mining geology. Recognized that fossils are remains of marine organisms in 1531. De Re Metallica was published after his death in 1556. Nicholas Steno 1631-1686 stated that mountains can be raised and lowered, land can be conveyed from one place to another. The Scottish Enlightenment c.1730-1830: Joseph Black (a pioneer of chemistry) James Hutton (a farmer who was interesting in soil and became interesting in how soil formed. Regarded as the father of modern day geology), Adam Smith (founder of modern day economics, wealth of nations), James Watt (Name used as an index of energy, invented the steam engine), Walter Scott (A writer, who wrote about Scotland). An english visitor to Edinsbu
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