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EESA06H3 (560)
Nick Eyles (492)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

EESA06 Lecture 8 Page 1 EESA06 Lecture 8 Japan Earthquake: - Pacific plate going beneath the Philippine plate both going underneath Japanese mainland (Tokyo is dangerous) - @ZµLK]ÁÀZ]2ZšÁZo}Áµš; - Japan as a whole moved east 25metres J normal is 2.5-3cm/year o plates were locked build up of stress and energy o recurrence interval J plates locked for 1000years (superquakes) - vertical uplift J is what killed people J tsunami and lowered shoreline Geologic Time and Stratigraphy - The Earth is 4.56 Billion Years Old How did we find this out? 1) Early idea on stratigraphy (the study of rock layers as in a book) 2) How layers get bent & broken (lost chapters) 3) Zoš]À2}Œ} lZ~šZ]Z}L]Z}oŒšZL; 4) Absolute age (isotopic age dating ex: 50 million years) 5) The Geological Timescale: 4.56 to today (similar to a book) Ancient Greeks recognized fossils embedded in rocks now on top of mountains - How did they get there? J uplifted - Strata J beds, older at bottom, deposition and accumulation of older layers o Can use these to correlate rocks from one location to another o Aliogeography J trying to find out what it was like in ancient times ^]oµÀ]µK_~,L]L2Z}o}}[ J Africa was moving towards North America, collided with east coast - ^šŒ] š]o] o]LšŒ‰Œšš]}L}ŒšZ[ZZ]Zš}ŒÇJ Œ} lZLoLZ ‰ZŒZµošŒ}K-}Z[Zo}} - More than one flood recognized J new life created each time so each layer contains different life forms Archbishop Ussher (1581-1625) - Declared in 1625 that ^ŒšZ}ŒKšõK}LK š}Œîò 7ðììð_ J only 6,000 years old - Based on counting generation in the Bible - µš; Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) - ^šZŒ}K]L]L22}o}2Ç_ - Recognizes that fossil remains are of marine organisms in 1531 Nicolas Steno (1631-86) - ^K}µLš]LZ LŒ]ZLo}ÁŒ7oL L }LÀÇŒ}K}L‰o š}L}šZŒ_ @Z^^ }šš]ZZLo]2ZšKLš_~ íóïì-1830) J Industrial Revolution, more rational beliefs - Joseph Black (Pioneer Chemist), James Hutton (Farmer, interest in soil formation), Adam Smith (Economist, Free Trade), James Watt (Steam Engine, Energy), Walter Scott (Writer) - An L2o]ZZÀ]Z]š}Œš}]LµŒ2ZŒKŒl9^ZŒ/ZšLšÁZš]Z oošZŒ}ZZ}]LµŒ2Z7 L L7]LÁK]LµšZ7šlñì}2L]µZLoŒL]L2ÇšZZL_ - Rational outlook J science based - Industrialization - Mapping of Oil shale rocks, building of canals - EESA06 Lecture 8 Page 2 James Hutton (1726-97) J ^šZŒ}K}ŒLÇ2}o}2Ç_ - Z }2L]Ì^unconformities_Á]šZ]LoÇŒ}Œ} lLšZ igneous origin of granite J gaps in geological record - 9Œ}‰}Z }L ‰š}^uniformitarianism_~šZ‰ŒZLš]Z the key to the past) J actualism, same processes observed today - K]Lš} }Lo] šÁ]šZŒKJŒLŒL^]oµÀ]o]ZK_ and ^catastrophism_J catastrophic floods, 6k years old earth - Facies J KLZ^‰‰ŒL }_ o Geologists speak of rock facies - ŒšZµŒ[Z^šJ distinctive shape, igneous intrusion, sill o First identification of igneous rocks J forms in molten state - ,µšš}L[ZDL }L}ŒK]šÇš^] Œ9}]Lš]L^ }šoL-> John Playfair, geologist (1747-1819) - The concept of ^‰@]K_ - ^šZK]L2Œ}ÁZ2]Ç2Ì]L2Z}Œ l]Lš}šZÇZZ}š]K_ - Layers in earth o Secondary Strata J second layer, contained fossils o Unconformity J gap, earth experienced multiple events o Primary Strata J first layer The Great Unconformity at Marmora, Ontario - Peterborough, hwy7 - Old Iron at bottom, limestone on top with fossils An Angular Unconformity: 500 million missing years - Kingston - Flat lying rocks on top of steeply dipping rocks The Taconic Unconformity in New York State about 440Ma - Africa collide with North America T
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