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Lecture 1 - Ch. 1-2, Intro + In the Beginning & Geology of Southern Ontario

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 1 - Ch. 1-2, Intro + In the Beginning & Geology of Southern Ontario Monday, January 09, 2012 10:07 AM  The Earth is 4.6 billion years old  Plate tectonics - constantly changing and moving  Climate change  The Atlantic ocean is getting wider - a mature ocean (it used to be a narrow rift, now it's not)  Leachate (tea bag analogy)  Geological Journey - watch the episodes on  CHECK BLACKBOARD REGULARLY  10 quizzes, 4 marks each (starting January 20th)  Glossary at the end of the chapter, questions at the end (similar to quiz questions)  Office hours: 12-2 on Mondays, SY205  Map of movement of plates with vectors  Continents are moving towards each other  Pacific Ocean is dying, unlike the Atlantic  Pangea - means "all the lands"  Role of geoscience: conducting research into planet Earth to secure resources for our future Geology of Southern Ontario: 1.5 billion years of Earth history  The Law of Superposition: that what is deeper down is older than what is above it  Layer 1: Precambrian  Fault under Pickering  Grenville Mountains used to be there (because of two plates hitting each other) but erosion occurred and it flattened out  Erratics - "meaning to wander"  Layer III is from past ice ages  Layer IV (not pictured) is built landscape like garbage  You can't farm on the shield (cottage country) because there's no good soil  Paleozoic Cover - "old life" - the layers dip or incline  Layer 1: Canadian Shield (> 1 billion years) - banded, metamorphic rock, used to be very deep, soft rock  Layer 2: Paleozoic Cover rocks (> 500 million years)  Laurentide Ice Sheet, 3 km thick, covered Canada except for the Rocky Mountains, which had its separate ice sheet called the Cordilleran Ice Sheet  This helped move rocks around  The sea level dropped during the Ice Age  Layer 3: Glacial Sediments (< 100, 000 years) - e.g. Scarborough Bluffs  We live on a fossil glacial landscape  Moraine: A mass of rocks and sediment carried down and deposited by a glacier, typically as ridges at its edges or extremity  Impermeable surfaces: roads, streets etc. - caused by urbanization, contaminates water  The Anthropocene - the Epoch of Man o Begins with the invention of steam engine  Drastic change in Toronto from 1912-1932 - mass construction and change in the harbour, especially - the area is now contaminated :(  DNAPL - Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid  LDNAPL - Light Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Ch. 1 Textbook Summary Geology is the scientific study of the Earth. Early geologists used their knowledge of rocks and minerals to find and exploit resources required by newly industrialized nations. Today, geoscien
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