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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Ch. 3-4, Going Deep Earthquakes and the Earth’s Interior

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 2 - Ch. 3-4, Going Deep: Earthquakes and the Earth’s Interior Monday, January 16, 2012 10:00 AM  Field Trip o Submit a statement - check Blackboard for more details How Planet Earth Works: Continental Drift vs. Plate Tectonics (Chapters 1 to 4 in textbook) First quiz: this Friday Key Things to Remember  Formation of planet Earth 4. 500 million years before present  'Continental drift' and Pangea: 1912 (Alfred Wegener)  Sea floor spreading : 1960 (Harold Hess)  Magnetic stripes on the ocean floor and wander paths for continents: 1965 (Fred Vine)  Mid-ocean ridges and hot spots: 1965 (Tuzo Wilson)  Plate tectonics and Wilson Cycle: 1967 (Tuzo Wilson) Re assembling Pangea (Wegener, 1912)  Wegener proposed that continents moved by plowing through the sea floor  "Continental Drift" o This was rejected by most geologists  Pangea consists of: Laurasia (N. America & Asia) -Laurentia + Asia Gondwana (Southern continents) - named after an area in India  Paleobiology o Dinosaur fossils found on different continents means the continents must have been together  Striations o Scratches made by glaciers that slide o They tell us the direction of ice flow o In Canada, the ice came from the north o In Australia, near Adelaide, the striation come at you from the shore which is evidence of a super continent 1960's: The ocean floor gets mapped o Echo sounder o Swath bathymetry o Seismic stratigraphy o Seismic reflection o Hydrophone o Sidescan tow vehicle  MORs - Mid-Ocean Ridges o Fractures - breaks o Trenches - deep water trenches - up to 9 km o Mountains with volcanoes  Harold Hess introduced idea of sea floor spreading (1962)  Sea floor created at MORs recycled into mantle at trenches o Volcanic activity creates new land o Cold slabs full of sea water are being returned and recycled o How can this be proven?  Continuous volcanic activity along mid-ocean ridges o 'smokers' and mineral deposits o Very deep water, unique ecosystems o Massive sulphites (copper, zinc etc.) - they are now mining MORs  Magnetic Stripes (1965) o Magnetometer surveys of ocean floor identified patterns of anomalies on each side of MORs o Negative and positive magnetic anomalies o Why would they want to use this here in Canada?  Old fault line under Pickering o
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