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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - How Oceans Widen Iceland & the Atlantic

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Environmental Science
Nick Eyles

Lecture 4 - How Oceans Widen: Iceland & the Atlantic Monday, January 30, 2012 10:16 AM Quiz 3 Mature Oceans: e.g. The Atlantic Continue with Reading Chapter 1-4 1. Mid-Ocean Ridges: Modern and Ancient (Ophiolites - fossil MORs) 2. Transform Faults 3. Iceland: Walking Over a Mid-Ocean Ridge 4. Volcanic Activity Under Glaciers: Jokulhlaups 5. Geothermal Energy Vancouver - Pacific plate is being driven down below North America (Cascadia), there will be an earthquake there soon Passive margin - small earthquakes can still occur along a passive margin, it is where the plate is being created and pushing the rest of the plate westward, in this case (North American plate), driving Vancouver over the Pacific plate Continental Margins Continental Shelves  Many kilometres of sediments  Good for fishery  E.g. cod in the east coast  Oil and gas  Very steep slope called the continental slope  Mass flows - sediments cascades down the slope into the deep abyssal plains Sedimentary Environments  Submarine fans - sediments comes out of the slope/submarine canyon  On the shelf there is lots of life - reefs, fish, light etc.  Continental Environments (on land) and Marine Environments (ocean)  To look into the past  Abyssal plain - 5-6 km deep Transform Faults: Enable Sea Floor Spreading on a Spherical Surface  Large "cracks" in the mid-ocean ridges  Segments = transform faults  Two spreading ridges are offset by the fracture  Leaky Tranforms: volcanoes growing along the fracture  E.g. San Andreas Fault - they are moving northwards towards Vancouver  Terranes: slivers of continental crust  Play a huge role in how continents grow Tectonic Forces Acting to Move Plates  Slab Pull: pulling the oceanic ridge underneath (e.g. South America)  Ridge Push  Basalt o Forms at mid-ocean ridge o Low-viscosity flow  Gas and silica volcanoes are the opposite, come out explosively Sea Floor Spreading  Zone where rocks are being metamorphosed  Massive sulphides  e.g. Newfoundland is made up of very old ocean floor How Oceans Widen: Continuous Intrusion of Dikes at MORs  Peridotite  Beridot o Green o What the mantle is made out of  Gabbro o Magma chamber o Minerals fall like snow the bottom of the chamber o Gabbro layers  Magma is injected upwards through dikes  When the magma reaches the ocean floor and cools it's called pillows  The product of it all: ocean f
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