Lecture 8 - Ch. 11 & 19, The History of Planet Earth: Science of
Monday, March 05, 2012
Archbishop Ussher 1581-1656
Declared in 1625 that "Earth formed at 9 am on October 26th 4004 BC"
Based on counting generations in the Bible
Georgius Agricola 1494-1555
"Father of mining geology"
Recognizes that fossils are remains of marine organisms in 1531
De Re Metallica
Nicholas Steno 1631-1686
"Mountains can be raised and lowered, land can be conveyed from one place to another"
1790-1820: The Industrial Revolution
Watt's steam engine
Great demand for resources… and geologists
1830s: Discovery of the origin of coal:
Formed in situ from plant debris growing in swamps
Confirmed by discovery of in situ lithified tree trunks in coal seams
Coal: slow lithification of peat
William 'Strata' Smith 1769-1839
Smith was a canal engineer
First geologic map was produced by Smith however first geologic map was actually produced in Ancient
1) Law of strata superposition
2) Law of faunal succession
Sir William Logan's Geological Map of Upper Canada 1865
The beginnings of modern day Canada because of coal
The "Scottish Enlightenment" c. 1730-1830
Joseph Black - chemistry
James Hutton - was a farmer contributed to geology, founder of modern geology
Adam Smith - famous economist
James Watt - steam engine
Walter Scott - novelist
Oil shale in Scotland An English visitor to Edinburgh remarked: "Here I stand at what is called the Cross of Edinburgh, and can,
in a few minutes, take 50 men of genius and learning by the hand."
Facies: means 'appearance of'
Geologists speak of rock facies
James Hutton 1726-1797
1. Recognized 'UNCONFORMITIES' within layers of rocks and the igneous origin of granite
2. Proposed concept of 'UNIFORMITARIANISM' (the present is the key to the past)
3. Came into