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Canada (508,508)
EESA06H3 (560)
Nick Eyles (492)
Lecture

Lecture3c

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles
Semester
Summer

Description
• Big  contrast  between  northern  and  southern  Egypt   o North  is  primarily  made  up  of  limestone   o South  is  made  up  of  granites   • Pyramids  all  constructed  approx.  4  500  years  ago   o Menkaure’s  Pyramid   o Khafre’s  Pyramid  (Chephren)   o Great  Pyramid  of  Khufu  (Cheops)   o Lost  a  lot  of  their  exterior   § Much  of  the  limestone  rock  has  been  reused   § Right  now  what  is  left  of  the  pyramids  are  their  cores   • Pyramids  were  made  up  of  two  types  of  limestone:   o Mokkatam  –  bioclastic;  made  up  entirely  of  fossil  organisms   o Tura  –  used  to  face  the  exterior   • Death  on  the  Nile:  Nummulites:  coin-­‐sized  foraminifera  within  the  bioclastic   Mokkatam  Limestone  of  the  Eocene  age   o Very  primitive  organisms;  one  major  valve   o Can’t  be  polished;  very  crude   o So  this  stone  was  used  to  make  the  cores  of  the  pyramid   • Six-­‐stepped  pyramid  of  King  Djoser  at  Sakkara  (‘world’s  first  stone  building’)   stripped  of  its  Tura  limestone  casing  stones   o Earliest  pyramid   • Tura  limestone  is  very  smooth;  can  be  given  a  nice  finish   o Polished  by  people  simply  brushing  by  it  in  narrow  alleys   • Ramses  II  at  Memphis:  fine  grained  micritic  Tura  limestone   o Statue  doesn’t  have  many  fractures  or  joints  unlike  most  stones   • Rifting  causes  uplift  and  therefore  erosion   o Younger  rocks  get  stripped  off   o Limestone  is  not  found  in  the  south;  instead  we  find  the  deeper  older   rocks  like  granite,  gabbro,  quartz   o Style  of  temple  and  use  of  stone  completely  change   o In  south,  Egyptians  were  more  interested  in  temple  complexes   • Luxor  temple   o Gabbro   § Slightly  coarser  grained  than  basalt,  but  maintains  same   chemistry   o With  pink  granitic  dike   o Ramses  II   • Colossus  of  Memnon   o Quartzite     o Damaged  by  earthquakes   o Of  27  B.C.  and  A.D  361   • When  rock  cools  fast,  there  is  no  time  for  the  individual  mineral  crystals  to   grow   o Result  in  fine  grained  basalt   • Gabbro  has  cooled  underground  at  a  much  slower  rate   o Crystals  in  rocks  can  actually  be  seen  with  naked  eye   • Sandstone  is  also  found  in  south  and  has  the  property  of  being  easily  carved   and  quarried   • Pylon  at  Karnak  temple  complex:  Nubian  sandstone   o Giant  advertising  façade;  Pharaoh  showing  how  powerful  he  is   o Has  many  hieroglyphics   • Hypostyle  hall:  Nubian  sandstone   o Rows  of  giant  columns   o Made  out  of  segments;  put  one  down  as  the  foundation  and  another   on  top  and  built  up  a  mud  ramp   o Mud  ramp  would  have  been  stripped  away  leaving  the  columns  intact   • Granite  is  very  widely  used  in  the  south  by  new  kingdom   • Unfinished  obelisk  at  Aswan   o 1200  tonnes   o 42  m  long   o Famous  quarry   o Column  was  never  moved  because  it  cracked   • Rock  names  having  an  ancient  Egyptian  source:   o Porphyry  –  any  igneous  rock  where  the  crystals  are  very  large   o Basalt   o Alabaster   o Syenite   o Ophiolite   § Ancient  ocean  crust   § Basalt  that’s  been  metamorp
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