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Canada (511,158)
EESA06H3 (568)
Nick Eyles (500)
Lecture

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles
Semester
Summer

Description
o Aa  lava     • Shield  volcanoes  erupt  underneath  glaciers  in  Iceland  and  so  are  more  steep   than  others  in  the  world   o Cool  quickly     Vatnajokkul  volcano  and  ice  cap   • Biggest  ice  cap  in  Iceland   • Sitting  right  on  top  of  volcano   • Valley  glaciers  –  fingers  of  ice  draining  the  main  ice  cap   • Very  dangerous  situation   • Volcano  eruption  may  burn  a  huge  hole  through  the  ice   • Creates  a  lake;  magma  is  erupted  into  the  lake  where  magma  cools  quite   quickly   o Pillow  basalts  where  magma’s  been  erupted  underwater   • Tuya  –  flat  top  mountain  made  of  volcanic  rock  that  results  from  sub-­‐glacial   eruptions   o Mimics  the  eruptions  that  occur  on  ocean  floor   o Term  originated  from  mountain  in  British  Columbia   o Records  major  volcanic  eruption  about  20  000  years  ago  when   Canada  was  covered  by  an  ice  cap   o We  have  volcanic  eruptions  in  BC  because  of  subduction   • Breccias  and  hyaloclastites     o Where  magma  comes  up  and  is  cooled  very  quickly   o Angular  masses  of  rock  all  jumbled  together  as  result  of  sudden   fracturing   • Pillow  basalts  also  crack  in  radial  patterns  –  beginning  of  hyaloclastite   fracturing   o Pillows  that  formed  in  a  sub-­‐glacial  lake     Modern  hazards:  large  floods  called  Jokulhlaups   • Volcanic  eruptions  under  ice  melt  and  create  huge  volumes  of  water   • Drainage  of  lakes  underneath  the  ice,  spreading  out  into  enormous  floods   o Some  have  same  discharge  as  the  Amazon  river  
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