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Lecture 8

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Environmental Science

 Japan earthquake-dangerous because of pacific plate going below phillipine plate o Epicentre 80km offshore o Tsunami propagated o Japan moved 25 m East because plates were locked and wanna moved, build up stress, normal rate of plate movment is 2.5 cm/yr o Recurrence interval for these superquakes are 1000 yrs o Pacific plate underneath goes west o May also be another one in near future o Outline of japan coastline (slide 5) o Tilting up the ocean floor-water goes west, shoreline got depressed, tsunami larger  Stratigraphy-arranging rocks in logical sequence in terms of age...from greek strata (layer)  Layer underneath another is older..not always (sometimes in rockys rocks are upside down due to plate tectonics)  Layer has been uplifted..pacific plate going on top of mountains o Rocks deposited way offshore underwater now above land o Older strata at bottom o Deposition through time, successive layers o Correlate-can be short distances or find out what contemporary environments were in certain areas..put together paleogeography (what world looked like in past)  Eastern Canada-deformed rock when pangea began to come together o Because Africa moving towards NA and collided with east coast and buckled rocks o Diluvium-meaning “of a flood” deposited in noah flood (thought to have created earths surface)=creationist view of earth history o Then thought the earth was created as we see it today o But now ppl know that earth has history  Archbishop Ussher-should be able to look through bible to find out earths history of when day 1 was o Declared earth was 6000 yrs old o Notion that earth was young stood for some time  Georgius Agricola-mining took off, realized that they saw layers, different strata, o Father of mining geology-book in 1556 o Realized fossils u see in rocks are preserved remains u see in ancient organisms o Translated by Hoover-hoover dam in vegas-irrigate desert  Nicholas steno-physician, father of stratigraphy  Industrial revolution (coals use for steam engines)-need resources o More rational view of world o Scottish enlightenment o Ppl started to map oil shales, to produce oil o Built canals-move bulky stuff, o Joseph black-pioneers of modern chemistry, get salt o James Hutton-farmer, soil formation, father of modern day geology o Adam smith-modern day economics, wealth of nations, free trade o James Watt-developed steam engine further o Walter Scott-writer, about Scotland  James Hutton o Recognized unconformities within layers of rocks and the igneous origin of granite  Hutton sees different layers of rock so therefore earth not created instantly because different times seen, also he saw erosion from one layer to another, breaks are called unconformities (gaps in geologic record)-gaps in itself are record of geologic processes o Proposed concept of uniformitarianism (the present is the key to the past)  Hutton also said if u go out, what u see in terms of geologic processes can be used to explain ancient past...uniformitarism or actualism  Facies=appearance of...looks at rocks in detail, they are different o Came into conflict with Abram Werner and diluvialism and catastrophism  This time ppl thought land was due to flood, called divuvialism or catastrophism (Abram Werner) 
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