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Lecture 9

Lecture 9.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science

 In future, new supercontinent in 2 mill yrs (alpine-himalayan orogeny)=pangea 2 o Involves obduction-process where we collide continents together, no subduction so no volcanoes..subduction-destroys crust, obduction-bigger landmass as colliding crust o Tectonic processes can change would be completely different which was triggered by uplift of huge mountain belt  Earth history is sucession of super continents  Were at the maximum extent of this process o Continents are moving apart o Atlantic ocean will start to close, pacific already closing..reversing this cartoon is the future of the planet over the same timescale  Plate map o Red arrows, direction plates are moving o Length of arrows proportional to velocity o Parts of pacific plate moving fast, headed to japan o Heading to South east asia (locus of next supercontinent)  Obduction process at work o Fig 2.29 in textbook o Indian subcontinent, Himalayan mountain o Before Indian collided with asian there was ocean there o Himalayas was the buckle floated busted rocks of that old ocean o Subduction zone at Indonesia, earthquake (Burma) just over the S product of india being driven up (North) a giant wedge... (12 min-FIX) o Effects of india being driven up as a wedge, effects are felt over large area (Afghanistan, Pakistan, south east east are escaping from indent driven up of asia)  Time lines, where india was 24 million ago (collision began) o Other crust in asia trying to escape o Subduction zone in Indonesia o Meterranean is a remnant of ocean that lay btw Africa and Europe..closing..will be gone as Africa continues its northern movement, mountain range involved is the ALPS (Swiss, French, Austrian)  Obduction o Huge compressional zone o Alot of regional metamorphism o Most common type of rock gneiss o High pressure, high temp o Granite plutons-granite has acidic, high content of silica, o About as far as it gets volcanically in obduction zone..melt large areas of gneiss, produce granite, may get rhyolite (highly explosive)..not subduction so not melting in large u usually don’t see volcanoes in obduction zone o Himalayas-no volcanoes o Fold and thrust belts-where cover rocks, sitting on top of the continental crust, dominantly sedimentary rocks, have been shoved and squeezed..resources include alot of oil and gas..because u have structure to trap hydro carbons  Welds (20 min) o Indenter model  Shows whats happening  Driving a wedge  Chinese, south east asia trying to escape  Maps of epicentres in china  Occur in linear belts...major faults marking where the blocks are moving relative to each other  Chinese earthquakes due to india moving north o Alpine Himalayan orogeny 
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