EESA07H3 Lecture 6: EESA07H3F Lecture 6 and Textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

EESA07H3 F: Lecture 6 Water in an Environment of Global Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Land Use. (October 31st, 2016) Population Growth and Climate Change: Population growth: Rapid growth of the population increases the global demand for water. Consumption has also increased due to society growing wealthier. Increasing water use can be balanced by increasing efficiency. Global climate change: A rise of global temperatures by 0.7C in the last 100 years, and an estimated 1 to 6C in this century. This is due to astronomical and atmospheric factors. Astronomical Factors: Eccentricity, obliquity and precession change the amount and location of solar radiation reaching the Earth. Eccentricity: is the deviation of a curve or orbit from circularity. Obliquity: describes the angle of tilt of the Earths axis of rotation. Precession: is the change in orientation of the Earths rotational axis. Atmospheric Factors: Human activities: Fossil fuel combustion and tropical deforestation increase concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Without greenhouse gases the Earths surface would be at least 33C cooler and all surfaces would be frozen. Global warming potential: is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas can hold in the atmosphere. 1 molecule of methane has the same amount of greenhouse potential as 25 carbon dioxide molecules. Effects of Global Warming on Water Availability: Higher temperatures mean more evapotranspiration. Evaporation increases moisture in the atmosphere for precipitation. Increased temperatures speed up the hydrological cycle. Estimated global increase of 13 in precipitation per 1C of warming. A recent analysis has found this to be closer to 7C. Since water availability is not uniform, some regions will still have lower rates of precipitation. This is also due to changes in the spa
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