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Lecture 7

EESA07H3 Lecture 7: Lecture 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Joyce Parga

Lecture 7 Infectious disease is hostcentered concept Human body is a habitat and host to many organisms Associations that harm or bother us are infectious diseases; agents are pathogens Zoonosisinfectious disease transmissible to humans from other animals Types of Pathogens Wormsmulticellular; parasitic Protozoaunicellular; parasitic Bacteriaunicellular; most not parasitic Aerobic vs anaerobic; or tolerate either Some form spores Virusesstrand of DNA or RNA; parasitic Bodys Defense against Pathogens Immune system distinguishes self from foreign Active immunityon first exposure to antigen, body produces antibodies Vaccination Antigen preparation active immunity (symptoms and produces antibodies) Antibody preparation passive immunity (injection of readily prepared antibodiesprotected immediately) Herd immunitypractical protection If enough members of a group are immune, hard to maintain chain of infection Evolution of Strategies for Managing Transmission of Disease Segregation of sick or exposed persons Isolation: the separation of persons who have an infectious illness Quarantine: the separation of persons who have been exposed to an infectious agent Sanitation: misguided but beneficial Vaccination to prevent illness Antibiotics to treat illness for bacterial, doesnt work for viral Populations of pathogens become resistant over time Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) High reproductive rate allow them to become genetically resistant quickly Overuse of antibiotics (antibiotics in food additives to boost livestock) Pesticides to control vectors(bugs) TRANSMISSION Transmission through closeness contact Droplet transmission: coughing, sneezing Diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis; influenza, measles, mumps, and rubella Direct oral contact Strep, herpes simplex1, infectious mononucleosis Transmission by fomite (object or substance capable of carrying infectious
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