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EESA09H3 (185)
Lecture 10

Wind notes for lecture 10 and 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

Lecture 10Harnessing the WindFlying HistoryMythical flight of Icarus who flew too near to the sun thLeonardo da Vinci in 15 century created designs of hang gliders helicopters and other flying machines Sir George Cayley first piloted the glider in 1853 Otto Lilienthal had 2000 glider flights and died in 1896 glider crash Wright brothers of USA had the first manned flight Flying DynamicsBernoullis Principleby Daniel Bernoulli lower pressure for faster moving air provides lift that enables an airplpane to rise or sailboat to move forward use of pressure gradient forceSailing History Dominant mode of transportation in the Mediterranean square sail limited maneuverabilitydownward sailing lateen sail triangular on a boom provided more options such as sailing against the windimported from Arab mariners MediterraneanMiddle East Nile Euphrates China Junks developed during Han DynastyExploration 1000AD Newfoundland by Norse sailors used Knorr cog and polar easterlies midlatitude westerlies Christopher Columbus in 1492 used Carrack caravel via Trade winds and westerlies 13001400 Ming ChineseNavy commercial exploration125m vessels nine masts3500 ships th13 century onward ships capable of travelling anywhere on EarthCaravel ship choice for travelling the worldClipper noted for speed perfected by England used to bring tea back from ChinaSailing DynamicsSame physics as flying o90 change in orientation Bernoullis principle still applies and lift is horizontal
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