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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

WIND – ESSA09 Prof: Tanzina Mohsin  [email protected] Midterm: June 23rd Lecture #1: Wind - Human mythology - Destructiveness  tornadoes, hurricanes o 165 tornadoes in 24 hours, 194 dead inAlabama inApril 2011 - Climatic importance  wind chill, local cooling and heating, Chinooks (local climate) - Power source  wind power - Atmospheric Primer: o Wind mythology (history of wind):  Greeks (euro-centric) · Aeolus (greek god) designated by Zeus to look after the four winds o Zephrus  gentle, west wind o Boreas  chilly, north wind o Notos  southern rain bringer o Eurus  ill-tempered, east breeze  Chinese mythology: · Feng Po Po  wind goddess, replaced by Feng Po  Japanese mythology: · Fujin was one of the earliest Gods of Shinto, the God of Wind  North American Indian: · Connect spiritual power with wind · Navajo (DinE)  wind intimately connected to their spiritual life · Part of creation stories (Holy wind)  links to breathing o Thought we were created from wind and not earth  Others: · Wind mythology permeates most human societies o Cultural winds  Culturally wind has been used as a metaphor, often representing change · Gone with the wind · Twister · The hurricane o Denzel Washington’s character connected to the character of a hurricane · Monsoon wedding o Shows different action of wind that have characters that match up with each of the characters · Chocolate · The wind that shakes the barley o Wind in religions  In the Hindu and Buddhist religions · Wind is viewed as the nature or state of a God · Referred to as “vayu”, “pavan”, and “godai”  In other religions, such as Islam, Judaism, or Christianity · Wind is viewed as one of the five great elements of power · The wind power had been used to teach lessons to the followers in the past · Each book of the religions describe the act of wind power in different ways  In Ancient Egypt, the 5 elements were used to create science and math o ***Participation Opportunity  slide 29!*** o Variations in atmospheric constituents  Geological Control  volcanic · 4.6 billion years · The atmosphere has not been stable  composition is dynamic, not static, and is always changing o Balance comes not from static but because inputs equal outputs · In the beginning… o Early earth:  Atmospheric composition largely the results of volcanic emissions (geologic control)  CO2, CH4  Lie appeared 3.8 billion years ago o 2.3 billion years of methane, carbon dioxide atmosphere  Anaerobic conditions “age of bacteria” o Abrupt change  2.3 billion years ago  O2 makes an appearance in the atmosphere and stabilizes at 21%  Aerobic life forms appear and flourish (biologic control)  Links to Gaia Hypothesis (James Lovelock)  Biological control  aerobic revolution · James Lovelock  basic premise is that LIFE modifies the environment to best suit itself (survival of the fittest) · 21% O2 is optimum for life · Mars and Venus are in a static equilibrium with high levels of carbon dioxide and methane  but no life · So why switch from anaerobic to aerobic conditions 2.3 billion years ago? o Gaia Hypothesis:  Early sun produced 30% less energy (Achaean)  Solar output has been gradually increasing (making earth HOT)  Early earth with high levels of methane and carbon dioxide had a strong greenhouse effect which lead to conditions warm enough for life  After 2.3 billion years solar output increased and earth was becoming too warm, the switch to aerobic life, reduced the greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) and cooled the planet  We not have considerably lower levels of CO2 in the atmosphere than the early earth  Gaia Hypothesis postulated that the atmospheric constituents have been controlled by life to optimize conditions for life  Anthropogenic Control  pollutants · During the carboniferous period (360-290 million years ago) during the Paleozoic Age life arrives on land o Sun’s energy converted to plant material (photosynthesis) o Decaying plants are not full oxidized o Converted to coal (and oil) under geologic pressure o Stored for millions of years o Many of today’s air quality problems arise from the release of this st
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