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EESA09 #5.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

EESA09Lecture 5ThunderstormsWhat is a ThunderstormA convective stormoStorm is caused primarily by surface heating rather than upper surface flowOnly type of storm with thunder and lightningLarge thunderstorms can spawn tornadoesToronto gets 3040yearDynamics of Thunderstorms4 typesOrdinaryoDevelop in large air masses not necessarily near a frontal region w little wind shearWind shearchange in speed and direction of horizontal windoThe air mass must be unstable verticallywarm air underlies cooler airoSurface heating is the triggerForces air upwards into strong updraft where it can warm air in surroundingsrising air cools due to expansionLatent heat released makes it more instableHydrometeorsice crystals and water droplets in cumulonimbus cloudsoWhen they are large enough they falloAs droplets fall some reevaporatedtakes energy air becomes colder and it sinksThis downdraft is formed in the same area as the updraft because little vertical wind shearThis counteracts the updraft cuts off fuel storm starts to dieDowndraft provides the surface w a blast of cool airspreads horizontallygust frontCan cause warm air to rise induces further TS Multicell TSoSimilar to oridinary but has moderate vertical wind shearoStorm tilts downdraft in different area than updraftoGust front more likely to spawn another TSstring of TSoTends to occur near a frontal system of MLC
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