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EESA09 #8.doc

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Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

EESA09Lecture 8Measuring WindMeasuring Wind11 InstrumentationAnemometers measure wind speedo7 types used to measure wind at or near surface of earthHigher level winds are measured using radiosonde weather balloons or deduced from pressure distributionoUpper level winds are geostrophic and thus pressure gradient knowledge allows us to calculate wind speed and directionWind vanes or weather vanes measure wind directionDeflection AnemometeroFirst anemometer invented by Leon Battista AlbertioLinked wind speed to deflection of horizontal plateoHooked spring to the plate measured compression of the springnot good for measuring light windsoDa Vinci created one as welloHooke created the widely used Hooke anemometerPressure AnemometeroJames Lindtube anemometeroA Utube in which wind blows into and causes liquid to move up and down in a tubeoMeasures the force of the wind relative to force of the gravity higher the wind speed greater the amount of displaced liquid oWorks on hydrostatic balance principle of the barometeroLow maintenance requirementsoWilliam Henry Dinescommonly used pressure anemometerCup AnemometeroThomas R Robinson First one 4 cups 90 degrees apartoCup speed13 of the wind speedThis fraction varied with cup shape and arm lengthoDoesnt need to be reoriented as the wind direction changesoJohn Patterson3 cup anemometermore accurate within 3 up to 100 kmhWindmill AnemometeroUses a propeller rather than a cup to gauge the wind speedoAerovane is used to insure anemometer is point into the windcommonly used todayThermoelectricoA wire is heated to above ambient temperatureoRate of cooling is proportional to the wind speedoHigher speed winds cool objects more quickly
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