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EESA09 Lecture#4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

Concept Map – on Season -Major concepts – surrounded in the middle -*Concept map should not look like a flow chart* -wave-live structure spread out through the page -Displays critical thinking skills Ex: Concept Map on Hurricane On exam – need to come up with concepts; Will NOT be given. -Will need to choose 5-6 major concepts. -I.e. do a concept map on air masses. LECTURE 5 -MC – 25 marks ->Who is who (5) ->T/F 10 ->Others 10 5 definitions 10 mks 4 SA 20 mks One concept map 5 mks Total 60 mks FINAL EXAM IS CUMULATIVE Must study both the slides and notes – Midterm and Final Tornadoes in SWO -over past 5 years lots of tornadoes What is a thunderstorm? -caused by differential surface heating: land-sea contrast of temperature change will cause convective storms -> exchange of heat. -very common in SWO -Hurricane – no lightning -the precursors to tornadoes -they fuel the tornadoes -when system is huge, has massive amount of latent heat Four categories Ordinary: small Mechanism for tornadoes is the same in all categories; one single difference: due to wind. Category 1 – 6 -> the stronger the wind the stronger the hurricane. Small, moderate and strong wind shear differentiating thunderstorms. -Ordinary: little vertical wind shear; change of horizontal wind speed with height. Three Stages: -Cumulus – surface heating with warm air rising during summer time, after a period of time, the warm air reaches stage where it condenses -> 0 degrees – cloud formation starts. Change of phase: releases latent heat – fuel. This is called an updraft. -Mature – you see down draft is causing precipitation near the ground. Gust front develops as downdraft air spreads along horizontal surface. -Dissipating – gust front fuels air to updraft (convective cell). When the gust front moves past the updraft, the updraft weakens. Rain starts to fall into the updraft, cutting off the rising humid air. Ordinary thunderstorm: less than 1 hour. Diameter, 1 km or less. Multi-cell Thunderstorm -change of horizontal wind speed with vertical – interaction gets stronger -storm can now tilt; now the downdraft cannot easily slice updraft, as a result, the storm lasts longer. -gust front of one storm initiates or induces another storm. Supercell Thunderstorm -formed with strong vertical wind shear -can form along the cold front of a midlatitude cyclone -polar front theory – at the tail end of this cyclone, its possible that the thunderstorm picks up the energy and turns into a huge super cell thunderstorm. The fuel is already there. -100-600 m in diameter -can cause tornadoes -storm can
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