Concept Map – on Season
-Major concepts – surrounded in the middle
-*Concept map should not look like a flow chart*
-wave-live structure spread out through the page
-Displays critical thinking skills
Ex: Concept Map on Hurricane
On exam – need to come up with concepts; Will NOT be given.
-Will need to choose 5-6 major concepts.
-I.e. do a concept map on air masses.
-MC – 25 marks
->Who is who (5)
5 definitions 10 mks
4 SA 20 mks
One concept map 5 mks
Total 60 mks
FINAL EXAM IS CUMULATIVE
Must study both the slides and notes – Midterm and Final
Tornadoes in SWO
-over past 5 years lots of tornadoes
What is a thunderstorm?
-caused by differential surface heating: land-sea contrast of temperature change will
cause convective storms -> exchange of heat.
-very common in SWO
-Hurricane – no lightning
-the precursors to tornadoes
-they fuel the tornadoes
-when system is huge, has massive amount of latent heat
Ordinary: small Mechanism for tornadoes is the same in all categories; one single difference: due to
wind. Category 1 – 6 -> the stronger the wind the stronger the hurricane. Small, moderate
and strong wind shear differentiating thunderstorms.
-Ordinary: little vertical wind shear; change of horizontal wind speed with height.
-Cumulus – surface heating with warm air rising during summer time, after a period of
time, the warm air reaches stage where it condenses -> 0 degrees – cloud formation starts.
Change of phase: releases latent heat – fuel. This is called an updraft.
-Mature – you see down draft is causing precipitation near the ground. Gust front
develops as downdraft air spreads along horizontal surface.
-Dissipating – gust front fuels air to updraft (convective cell). When the gust front moves
past the updraft, the updraft weakens. Rain starts to fall into the updraft, cutting off the
rising humid air.
Ordinary thunderstorm: less than 1 hour. Diameter, 1 km or less.
-change of horizontal wind speed with vertical – interaction gets stronger
-storm can now tilt; now the downdraft cannot easily slice updraft, as a result, the storm
-gust front of one storm initiates or induces another storm.
-formed with strong vertical wind shear
-can form along the cold front of a midlatitude cyclone
-polar front theory – at the tail end of this cyclone, its possible that the thunderstorm
picks up the energy and turns into a huge super cell thunderstorm. The fuel is already
-100-600 m in diameter
-can cause tornadoes