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EESA09H3 (185)

lec 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

Lecture 9 Pollutant Transport by the WindArctic PollutantsWhat are theyArctic HazeFirst noted in the 1950s by aircraft pilotsSeasonal variationpeaking in springPooling appears to occurSinks are likely the Arctic ocean and surrounding waters ConstituentsSulphate levels 10 to 20 times larger which is greater than normal vanadium detectedMixed with uncombusted carbon to form aerosol which blocks light and appears grayish or brownish in colour90 sulphate remainder is soot carbon dustCoal burning the major culpritTrace metals vanadium manganese indicate sourcesTrace constituents such as metals and persistent POPs can adhere to the aerosols and pool in the Arctic 1972Glen ShawSuggested long range transport as likely mechanism for source of Arctic HazeGlobal circulation carries in pollutants from industrialized parts of the globeWhy do they pool in the ArcticStable atmosphere temperature inversionLittle precipitation no washoutCircumpolar circulation Major source is EurasiaCoal burning plants located further north Seasonal cycle on vertical distribution of Arctic HazeBurrow Alaska ImpactsReduced visibility especially in springContamination of snow ice and Arctic watersBioaccumulation RemediationCoal based emissionsSolution easy to identify difficult to implementReduction of coal emissions especially in EurasiaMay be the only case where US is not the major culprit Persistent Organic Pollutants POPsToxic organic compounds with long lifespans that become concentrated as they move through the food chainHydrophobic and lipophilicBioaccumulation and biomagnificationRisk to biota health
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