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EESA09H3 (185)

Lecture 2

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Environmental Science
Tanzina Mohsin

EESA09H WINDLecture 2 Notes1 Outline of this lecturea Part 1 Wind Primerb Part 2New air mass classification systemapplied to Toronto2 Part 1 Wind PrimerWhat is windWind cannot be seen directly but can be inferred by its effects such as the movement of objects trees grass and causing objects to become airborne dust Wind can be felt and it can be heard Wind results from the differences in air pressure either vertical or horizontal Differences in pressure produce a pressure gradient In the absence of other forces air tends to move from high pressure to low pressure The force that causes this is called the pressure gradient forceBecause the earth rotates another force does act on the wind It is called a fictitious force because it directly results from this rotation of the earth It is called the Coriolis force In the Northern Hemisphere it acts to deflect the wind to the right and in the Southern Hemisphere it acts to deflect the wind to the left A French nobleman Gustave de Coriolis derived the mathematical formulation in 1835 although Englishman George Hadley had described the effect a century beforeAbove the surface of the earth 1 km or more there is a balance between pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force forming the geostrophic wind The only way to achieve a balance between these forces is for the wind to flow perpendicular to the
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