Lecture 4 Chemical hazards .docx

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Environmental Science
Silvija Stefanovic

Lecture 4 EESA10 1 Chemical Hazards  They are everywhere but some chemical hazards deserve special attention and more information  Endocrine disrupters  Chemical body burdens Endocrine disrupters  Hormones are chemical that regulate chemical processes in body  Some chemicals release into the environment are similar to the properties as some of the hormones  When these come into our system, our body can accidentally mix those chemicals instead of the hormones  These chemicals mimic some hormones  They disrupt the hormones function in the body because the products, or metabolism will be system when regulated by hormones and the chemicals Endocrine disrupters  They can have direct effects o Every hormone has a receptor and these chemicals can bind with these hormone receptor o Some appearance of genes can be developed and will result in wrong production of hormones  Indirect effect o Low or high levels of production of hormones o Effect on normal transport of hormones o Metabolism of hormones o Will not cause severe effects on adults o Babies (fetuses) are extremely sensitive to endocrine disrupters o If woman has lower of thyroid hormone, usually medical doctors would not advise her to take hormone supplementary  Lower levels of T2 and T3 will affect the development of the fetus o DES subscribed to women to prevent abortion  The children of these women on reaching reproductive age had problems  If fetus is exposed to chemicals, they will have problems at a later point in life o Health implications  Feminization of males (of rooster)  Abnormal sexual behavior  Birth defects  Altered time to puberty  Cancer of glands  Thyroid dysfunction o Neurobehavioral  Behavior and brain can be affected with endocrine disrupters  Usually in fetuses  Most references come from animals Chemical body burdens  The chemicals who use these chemicals should have approval or researched  The chemical is usually used even before the risk assessment of them  Every year, new chemicals are used and we are exposed to unknown chemicals  There is no individual with no lack of chemicals o We are exposed to huge number of chemicals o The area of living is dependent on the chemicals  The total amount of the chemicals is called body burden o Includes a variety of chemicals rather than one chemicals o Is constantly changing o Our body is fighting against these chemicals so our body is able to excrete some of them and break some of them o Some chemicals can be easily released but some stay in the system for a very long time o The amount is not stable over time  The amount is NOT distributed evenly around the body o Some chemicals accumulate in muscles, and liver  Is difficult to find these chemicals  Biomonitoring o Some computer models which help to distribute them and position them o We know DDT is present but we do not have techniques to discover some chemicals in the human body o If we don’t know about or standard of the chemical,
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