Week 3 Water.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Silvija Stefanovic

Week 3 Water 1 Liquid natural capitol  Majority of water is found within human body  Water is contaminated? Not all can be absorbed and stored  Earth is called the water planet- mainly salty water  Almost 71% of earth is covered with water  Humans and all other species cannot exist without water  Water rain and ice sculpture the shape of the planet  Water also affects the climate (milder climate seen close to seashore)  High concentration of pollutants can affect the biological process of humans o Low concentrated will not have a high impact World’s Problems  Quality of the water o What pollutants the water contains or what is dissolved in the water  Quantity of water available o The main sources of water supplies are rivers, lakes, rain, salty water o Withdrawal is when water is taken from rivers, lake or aquifer o Amount of water should be returned back to its original source o The use of water will increase significantly over the next decade o Before planning to withdraw water, diagrams should be analyzed to find out how much water is available o 97.4% is not readily available because it is found in oceans and saline lakes  Therefore, only 2.6% of fresh water is available for use  A big portion of the 2.6% is ice caps and glaciers which is also not readily available  Only 0.014% of freshwater is readily available for use which is mainly found in lakes  The countries under very high water stress are mostly in middle east and northern Africa World problems  Some areas have a lot of water but the sources are not where they are needed o Far from big cities and agricultural areas o Water needs to be transported to the areas where it is needed  Precipitation arrives short period and cannot be collected and cannot be preserved  If water is withdrawn continuously, it results in the shrinkage of lakes and rivers How do we use the water?  Water usage is related to the climate, prominent sector etc  In Canada, not much water is used for agriculture but China uses 87% of water in agriculture Hydrological poverty  This refers to how much people have access and how many are poor as related to water  International efforts improve water supply in poor areas Drinking water  Canadians drink water from Lake Ontario, not from the shore  Water is taken 100 of meters from the shore  We have one of the safest drinking water supplies in the world  Problems may arise from pipes rather than central source  The main sources of dinking water are surface water and ground water o Surface water is usually used in urban areas o Ground water is mostly used in rural areas i.e. well water Sources of water (diagram)  The rivers are fed by precipitation  Two different kinds of ground water o Unconfined aquifers which goes vertically and does not go below the clay layer of land and thus can be easily contaminated because they are found closer to the surface o Confined aquifer is water between impermeable layers and this water is under pressure  This water is artesian well and will come up  This type of aquifer is better protected because it is between two impermeable layers  Every rural area should use confined aquifer Comparing ground water to surface water (diagram)  There is more vegetation in rural areas and thus, evaporation is higher and surface run-off is lower  Surface run-off is higher in urban areas due to roads and buildings  Groundwater is more in rural areas Quality of water (sources of contamination) Week 3 Water 3  Agriculture (pesticides) which seeps into the groundwater  Storage tanks carry different organic and inorganic solvents  Wastes can contaminate the groundwater  Septic tanks from houses contaminate water too  Landfill might be hazardous wastes which can leak and lead to the groundwater  Industry waste can contaminate ponds Parameters of the quality of water  Water PH o Salt dissolves if the Ph is higher than 7 o If PH is lower than 7, it can dissolve lead and other harmful minerals  Hardness of water o The total levels of the cells (calcium, magnesium) o Not hard, not soft o Soft water also dissolves lead, copper but is better than hard water  Color- should be colorless and transparent o Color in water indicates that confirmation should be made to look for iron and copper  Turbidity o If the water is turbid, does not mean water is toxic but further investigations should be made  Taste or odor o Water should not have any strong taste or smell  Microbes and chemicals o The main cells found in water Contaminants in water Microbes  The main microbe we are familiar is fecal colifrom ad E
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