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Lecture 4

Week 4 Lecture

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Waterborne Hazards and Human Health Liquid natural capitol l The Earth is water planet l Water covers 71% of Earth surface l Mostly salt water l No species can do without water all living things like water l Sculpting the Earths surface l Moderating climate l Removing and diluting wastes and pollutants Worlds problems l Quantity of water l Quality of water Ganges River l Withdrawal- total amount of water removed from a river, lake or aquifer for any purpose. l Some may be returned to the source for reuse l Use about 54 % of the worlds reliable runoff of surface water and could be using 70-90% by 2025 (more and more water will be used) Quantity of water How much fresh water is available? Not much! Stress on the worlds major river basins (how much is used in comparison to how much is available) Water stress <1700 cubic metersyearperson Water scarcity <1000 cubic metersyearperson Worlds problems l Some areas have lots of water but the largest rivers are far from agricultural and population centers o Lot of investments, transport l Lots of precipitation arrives during short period but cannot be collected and stored l Lakes and rivers shrinks The satellite images show the Aral Sea in (A) 1976 and (B) 1997. As water was diverted for irrigation, the sea level subsided How do we use the worlds fresh water? 85% of water use for irrigation is consumed and not returned to its water basin Average water use in Canadian homes (Environment Canada, 2005) Hydrological poverty lack of clean water, no safe drinking water, travel long distances for water source l One out of six people do not have regular access to clean water l Diarrheal deaths kill over 2 million children annually Water and Your health
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