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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Answers for “Environmental Change and Health” 1- In 1952, 4000 excess deaths occurred due to a case of severe air pollution. (That is what mentioned in your chapter).  Background information: In December 1952, there was a large amount of coal being burnt (it was winter), resulting in a lot of smoke emitted into the air from chimneys. There was very little wind and the air was moist. The combination of these factors resulted in the formation of a very dense smog due to temperature inversion: the air near the ground is usually warmer but at night it cools down. Usually, the sun in the morning breaks the inversion but the smog was so thick that it persisted for 5 days! The smog containing high levels of air pollutants caused many health related diseases as the smog was concentrated at a very low elevation  people were breathing it. 2- Minimata disease was caused by eating fish contaminated with methyl- mercury which is very toxic, released into Minimata Bay by as industrial wastewater. Health concerns consist of brain and kidney damage, loss of vision and impaired cerebral function. 3- The “itai-itai-byo” or “ouch-ouch” disease refers to the incident of rice contamination by cadmium which occurred in Jintsu river, northern Japan in the 1950s. Consuming rice with high cadmium levels resulted in severe bone pain and sometimes disintegration and bone fracturing, added to fatal kidney failure and hypertension. 4- In the middle of the 1960s, the Hudson river water quality was degrading at a very fast rate and the river itself was drying up. Several polluting sources were affecting the river, of which municipal raw sewage, discharged industrial paint and oil as well as very warm waters dumped from a nuclear power plant. The concerned fishermen gathered however and raised complaints which were fruitful. In the 1990s, the Hudson River water quality had completely recovered and allowed for very high fish production. 5- The Love Canal episode consists of a land first owned by a chemical company (Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp.) in the 1950s. The latter dumped a large amount of chemical wastes (23,000 tones) into a landfill in Love Canal. After covering the landfill, the land was sold and on it was built a playground. In 1977, thick fluids started appearing on the ground near the canal and simultaneously, children in the area were found to suffer f
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