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Lecture 11

EESA10H3 Lecture 11: EESA10 lecture 11

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Environmental Science
Silvija Stefanovic

LECTURE 11 Environmental Hazards to Specific Populations  Children's environmental health  Women's health and environment  Workers and noise hazards  Elderly and environmental health 1.Children's environmental health o Different exposure patterns between children and adults  Limited diet  Babies that drink breast milk (can be infected with dioxins, DDT) vs formula (need good quality water)  3-4 times more food in proportion to their body size than adults  Drink more water relative to their body weight  Fewer types of food  Large quantities of specific foods  Behaviour unique to children  Mouthing behaviour (2-6 year-olds touch their mouths about 9 times every hour)  Ingestion of soil  Paint Small objects   Infectious agents  Disinfection byproducts  Participation in certain athletics and/or risky activities  Construction sites  Swimming  Risky playing activities (ex. Climbing trees)  Exposure to sun  Smoking (adolescents)  How and Where children spend their time  Spend most of their time indoors  Crawling and playing on the floor (dust, pollutants, infectious agents, radon)  Playing on the grass (pesticides, skin infections)  The Impact of Short stature  The breathing zone of the adults is 4-6 feet above the floor or ground  For children it is much lower o Physiological differences between children and adults  Higher metabolic rate  More active than adults (eat more, drink more, breath more air relative to body weight)  Dermal adsorption  Higher ratio of skin surface area to body  Skin is more permeable  Gastrointestinal adsorption  Large surface area of intestines; more chemicals can go through  Prolong gastric emptying time; any bad foods stay longer inside the body and are adsorbed longer  Calcium-lead transport mechanism; really good at absorbing calcium so it can absorb similar things to calcium such as lead and cadmium  Lower stomach acidity; ex. Metals need acid to be bioavailable so it won't be that bad in children  Respiratory adsorption  Breathe twice as much air  Blood-brain barrier depends on age; chemical barrier that protects the brain from infection -> children do not have this barrier completely developed yet  Greater blood flow to the brain and other organs  The size of the some organs relative to body mass is greater  Biotransformation processes are less developed  More time to develop chronic diseases 2.Women's Health and Environment o Role in reproduction and in bearing and nursing of children o Influence the health of their children o Carry more fat; organisms that dissolve in fats impact women more o Live longer than men, on average; one reason is because of hormones like estrogen o Breast cancer (genes, hormones, synthetic chemicals) o Osteoporosis (fragility of bones, genes, hormones, lead and cadmium role); menopause 3.Workers and Noise Hazards o Noise: sound that can damage hearing or otherwise harm health o Damage to the sensitive cells lining the inner part of the ear o Effects of hearing  Tinnitus: ringing or other sound in the ears after exposure to loud noise  Threshold shift: upward shift in threshold at which sound at certain frequency cannot be perceived  Loss of high frequency sounds (>4000Hz)  Loss of lower frequency sounds (<4000Hz, wit
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