EESA10 lecture 2.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

EESA10- Lecture 2  Airborne Hazards and Human Health  Case study 1: London Smog, 1952 – still has huge was a landmark for air pollution. Even before that the air slightly polluted. Contains sulfur and releases dioxide. – not strongly recognized  Whole era of air cleaning started. [1952]  Heating of the house was necessary. Sulfuric acids and other pollutants into the air. Why 1952? – was called cold winter. The air was stagnant. – smog becomes so thick that it was like fog.  People were chocking because of the sulfur dioxide that was causing throat problems. A man guides a London bus through thick fog with a flaming torch during the 1952 Great Smog  Sulfur dioxide connected to the death of people.  Figure shows the average smoke and sulfur oxide levels for 12 london sites and the relationship with deaths recorded during the smog period in December 1952. The peak in the number of deaths conincided with the peak in both smoke and sulfur dioxide pollution levels.  London is very clean because of the improvement – number of the species that are coming back thus air is improving and so is the human health.  Case 2: Indonesian Fires, 1997 – system uses slash and burn (burning the forest), monsoon – they help to extinguish the fire. That’s how the size of the area that burns is in the control. As monsoon doesn’t arrive the size of burned area gets bigger and bigger – this leads to the release of smog. – caused accidents. Sometimes its out of human control.  The same thing happened in 1998. Smoke over Lake Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia, photographed by the space shuttle atlantis. Smoke from fires set to clear land for agriculture in Indonesia at one time in 1997 blanketed an area larger than the continental US.  Fire damage classification of the 1997-1998 fires in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, based on ERS-SAR images.  In spite of having various solution, the problem still exists. This is a global problem – has to be done everywhere – from developing country to continental.  Hamilton, Sudbury  Airborne Hazzards: outdoor air pollution – sources: human: stationary, mobile. Natural sources: are rare. Human sources frequencies are much higher. Some air pollutants are organics and the other are inorganics.  Indoor air pollution – more.  Health effects of ourdoor: the effects depend on the dose or concentration: Asthma:  Particulates and/or SO2 can irritate brochial passages leading to severe difficulties in breathing or allergy.  From 1983-1993 prevalence in the US increased 34%  The incidence among a children in Australia was one in fice, a doubling of the rate in less than 20 years  Indoor air pollution is also significant  Chronic Bronchitis: occurs when an excessive amount of mucus is produced in bronchi which results in a lasting cough – built up during the night  SO2 and smoking is related to chronic bronchitis  Pulmonary emphysema: weakening of the wall of alveoli, they become enlarged and loss their resilience  Shortness of breath is the primary symptom  NO2 is related to emphysema Lung cancer, heart disease - Toxic poisoning Eye irritation
 Birth defects  Seven common outdoor air pollutants: primary air pollutants: ppt  Particulate matter (PM10 and PM 2.5) now a days, smaller particles can cause bigger harms and cause bigger problems. Now most of the research are focused on PM 2.5, construction creates lots of dusts [think about solids]  Particles found in the air (dust, soot, smoke and liquid droplets)  Big and small  Vehicles, factories, construction sites, titled fields, stone crashing, burning [trash, releases that into the atmosphere]  Some formed in the air [some of the gases, oxides creates the salt, can cause health problems]  Serious health effects  Carbon monoxide: odourless, colorless gas  Incomplete burning of carbon containing fuels  Heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, water heaters, automobile exhaust, tobacco smoke.  1000 people die each year in US as result of CO poisoning  Sometimes confused with flue or food poisoning  Fetuses, infants, elderly and people with heart and respiratory [ppt]  Health effects:  Interferes with the delivery of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body  Worsen cardiovascular condition  Fatigue, headache, weakness, confusion, disorientation, loss of coordination, nausea, dizziness, death.  Carbon monoxide – poisoning  Hemoglobin has higher affinity of carbon monoxide and with interfere with the oxygen.  Prevention: never leave a car engine running in a shed or garage or in any inclosed [ppt]  Nitrogen oxide (NOx) – are less soluble than sulfuric acids. Wouldn’t cause the burning feel. They have impact on lungs. But sulfuric acid will impact upper airways but less impact on lower airways. Sulfuric gases are not so much in the vehicles but nitrogen oxide is full within the traffic. – a product of internal burning – gasoline  Form in any type of combustion process involve in formation of ground level ozone  Form nitrate particles, acid aerosols  Contribute in formation of acid rain  Transported over long distances.  Sulfur oxide (Sox)  Burning of coal and oil, extraction of metals from ore  SO2 dissolves in water vapor to from acids  Acids react with other gases and particles and from sulfates.  Transported over long distances  Respiratory illnesses, aggravates existing
More Less

Related notes for EESA10H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.