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Lecture 4

EESA10 - Lecture 4.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Lecture 4 Chemical Hazards and Human HealthFrom Last ClassTransformation of nitrates to nitritesin the book it says that it is happening in our body professor said here in class that it is happening in water both things are trueIt actually depends if we have bacteria to do this transformation process in waterWe always have them in our body but if we have in water this process will definitely happenOther thing is what is the temperature of the waterif it gets warmer this process will speed upie reheating spinach if spinach is fertilized heavily with nitrogen fertilizers definitely will at least have high amount of nitrogennitratesWhen we first eat it fresh it wont be very dangerous for usnot a riskBut if we reheat that spinach process transformation between nitrates and nitrites will speed up because of that heatChemical HazardsWhy chemical hazards all contaminants all pollutants that we discussed until now are basically chemical hazardsin water in airThis lecture will be about the chemical hazards that are spread everywherein every medium be soil food plants meat water even in airEndocrine disruptorsChemical body burdens of industrial chemicalsSome chemicals that are body burdens are also endocrine disruptors and on the other hand endocrine disruptors can accumulate in the body and we call them body burdens and they also do the same in industrial because endocrine disruptors can be industrialWhat is the biggest problem with these chemicals oWe dont know much about it especially not how these chemicals affect human healthMost of our conclusions are assumptions or they are based on animal studiesmany experimental animals have a similar physiology with humans but not the same and who knowsoThat is what we have right now and science is working on that very hard so soon we will have some better answersWhat are Endocrine disruptorsFirst you have to know what endocrine glands arePicture posted to show what are the endocrine glandsthese organs in our body produce hormonesWhat are the hormones oChemicals that regulate many different processes that are very important processes in our body and they regulate the processes in very tiny amountsWhat do endocrine disruptors do to these functionsoHormones are carried through our body by some receptor also some chemical that carry the hormoneBecause of the similarity between the hormone and our pollutant our endocrine disruptor receptor is confusedWhat is happening oSome genes can be altered because these receptors bind with DNA and alter the appearance of the geneWhat the genes do is regulate the production of different proteins and as a result of their changes and alterations so changes are reliable to produce proteins are seen in a bodythat is all about direct effects
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