Human Health and Environment Lec 4: Chemical Hazards and Human Health (includes powerpoint notes and diagrams)

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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTLec 4 Chemical Hazards and Human Healthtwo main kinds of chemical hazards endocrine disrupters and chemical body burdensdata in respect to chemical hazards and their effect on health mostly stems from animal studies not human exposureEndocrine Disruptersendocrine system uptakes some chemicals which mimic some hormonesdisrupts hormone function in the bodyproduct and metabolism will be different if regulated by chemicalscan be direct or indirectdirect effects bind to hormone receptors alter the appearance of some genes changes in the level of produced proteinsindirect effects altering hormone production altering hormone transport altering hormone metabolismdoesnt have really big health effects in adultsone can still live normallyfetuses are more sensitive to these chemicals howeverthyroid glandproduces T3 and T4 and if women have significantly lower thyroid hormone levels when pregnantpractitioner will suggest to take thyroid chemical supplements because low level of thyroid hormones can have an effect on the fetuslow IQ levels developmental challengesie DES diethylstilbesteolsynthetic estrogen used by physicians to prevent spontaneous abortion 19481971administered for early pregnancy until 35 weeksgreater than 1 million women took it between 19601970daughters whose mothers took DES have increased incidents of in adult lifereproductive organ dysfunctionabnormal pregnanciesreduction pregnanciesimmune system disorderscarcinomaEndocrine DisruptersHealth Implicationsfeminization of malesabnormal sexual behaviourbirthdefectsteratogenic chemicals are the category of chemicals that lead to birth defectsaltered time of pubertycancer of mammary glands or testisthyroid dysfunctionEndocrine DisruptersNeurobehavioural effects
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