HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Lec 11 Climate Change, Ozone Depletion

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Department
Environmental Science
Course
EESA10H3
Professor
Jovan Stefanovic
Semester
Winter

Description
Average temperature over past 900 000 years Temperature change over past 22 000 years Agriculture established 2 16 E 14 End of -2 ast ice 3 age Average temperature over past 10 000 years 15°C (59°F) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Present 20 000 10 000 2 000 1 000 200 100 Now Thousands of years ago Years ago Temperature change over past 1 000 years Average temperature over past 130 years 1.0 15.0 14.8 0.5 14.6 E 14.4 0.0 14.2 14.0 -0.5 13.8 1.0 860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 202C 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 19002000 2101 Year Year FIGURE 21-2 Estimated changes in the average global temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface over different periods of time. Past temperature changes are estimated by analysis of radioiso Average temperature over past 900 000 years Temperature change over past 22 000 years Agriculture established 2 16 E 14 End of -2 ast ice 3 age Average temperature over past 10 000 years 15°C (59°F) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Present 20 000 10 000 2 000 1 000 200 100 Now Thousands of years ago Years ago Temperature change over past 1 000 years Average temperature over past 130 years 1.0 15.0 14.8 0.5 14.6 E 14.4 0.0 14.2 14.0 -0.5 13.8 1.0 860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 202C 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 19002000 2101 Year Year FIGURE 21-2 Estimated changes in the average global temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface over different periods of time. Past temperature changes are estimated by analysis of radioisoHUMAN HEALTH AND EVNIRONMENT Lec 11: Climate change, Ozone Depletion and Biodiversity GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE The Earth’s natural greenhouse effect -energy from the Sun warms the Earth’s surface -energy radiates back toward space -water vapour (clouds), carbon dioxide and other gases are heated -they radiate heat (longer-wavelength) in all directions (space or warms the air and the Earth’s surface) -greenhouse gases: water vapour, CO ,2CH ,4N O2 -it was concluded in a conference two years ago: human activity has led to the increased CO 2ate Processes affecting increases of greenhouse gases -fossil fuels: -electricity generated by coal 42% -transportation 24% -industrial processes 20% -residential and commercial uses 14% -clearing and burning forests and grass lands -raising large number of livestock (methane) -planting of rice  releases nitric acid and from nitrogen fertilizers -inorganic feritlizers310 1800 2000 2100 Carbon dioxide (Co2) 0.6 1900 2000 Year Methane (CHal 320 1800 1900 Year Nitrous oxide (N20) FIGURE 21-5 Increases in average concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the troposphere between 1861 and 2003. The fluctua- tions in the CO2 curve represent seasonal changes in photo- synthetic activity that cause small differences between summer and winter concentrations of CO2. (Data from Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change, National Center for Atmos- pheric Research, and World Resources Institute) 380 360 340 C a 320 300 280 Carbon dioxide o E 260 240 +2.5 S 220 3 D 200 2.5 180 5.0 7.5 C V Temperature change End of -10.0 last ice age l T T T T T 160 120 80 40 Thousands of years before present 310 1800 2000 2100 Carbon dioxide (Co2) 0.6 1900 2000 Year Methane (CHal 320 1800 1900 Year Nitrous oxide (N20) FIGURE 21-5 Increases in average concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the troposphere between 1861 and 2003. The fluctua- tions in the CO2 curve represent seasonal changes in photo- synthetic activity that cause small differences between summer and winter concentrations of CO2. (Data from Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change, National Center for Atmos- pheric Research, and World Resources Institute) 380 360 340 C a 320 300 280 Carbon dioxide o E 260 240 +2.5 S 220 3 D 200 2.5 180 5.0 7.5 C V Temperature change End of -10.0 last ice age l T T T T T 160 120 80 40 Thousands of years before presentLargest emitters of C2 1. China and Taiwan 24.4% 2. US 22.2% 3. European Union 14.7% 4. Russia 5.6% 5. India 4.9% 6. Japan 4.6% 7. Germany 3.1% 8. Canada 2.3%  4X the global average Present problems -20 century was the hottest century in the past 1000 years -since 1861 the average global temperature of the troposphere has risen 0.7 degrees Celsius -20 warmest years occurred since 1980 -glaciers and floating sea ice are melting and shrinking -during the last century average sea level rose by 0.1-0.2mAgriculture Shifts in food growing areas Changes in crop yields Increased irrigation demands Increased pests, crop diseases, and weeds n warmer areas Biodiversity Extinction of some plant and animal species Loss of habitats Disruption of aquatic life L Weather Extremes Prolonged heat waves and droughts Increased flooding from more frequent, intense, and heavy rainfall in some areas Water Resources Changes in water supply Decreased water quality Increased drought Increased flooding Snowpack reduction Melting of mountaintop glaciers Human Population Increased deaths from eat and disruption of ood supplies More environmental efugees Increased migration Forests Changes in forest composition and locations Disappearance of some forests, especially ones at high elevations Increased fi
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