6 Pages

Environmental Science
Course Code
Jovan Stefanovic

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HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Lec 8: Food Hazards and Human Health -there are two kinds of foodborne illnesses: 1) transmissible  caused by mostly living organisms: bacteria, virus, parasite 2) nontransmissible  caused by non-living organisms Transmissible Foodborne illnesses -types of foods: meat, milk, dairy products, unpasteurised fruit and vegetable juices, raw or undercooked eggs, chicken, tuna, potato and macaroni salads, cream filled pastries, fresh produce, spices, chocolate, seafood -food with fat and protein most likely to cause illnesses -illness is caused by careless food handling i.e. food standing too long on the room temperature, improper cooking, contaminated cutting boards and kitchen tools -symptoms of Foodborne illnesses -diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever, vomiting, headache, sometimes blood in the stool -usually last only a day or two sometimes 7-10 days -for most people not life threatening -severe in the young children, the very old and people with certain diseases and conditions such as liver disease, iron disorder, diabetes, cancer -prevention of Foodborne illnesses -in supermarket -safe storage -safe food preparation -keep everything clean -keep hot food hot and cold food cold -cook properly -proper storage of leftovers -wash hands • Bacteria: Escherichia coli -food poisoning usually associated with eating unwashed vegetables and meat contaminated post-slaughter -grounded beef is the biggest source -diarrhea, abdominal cramps -complications Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in which the red blood cells are destroyed and kidneys fail (2-7% cases) • Bacteria: Clostridium botulinum (Botulism) -rare but serious illness (fatal)-nerve toxin of bacterium Clostridium botulinum  bacteria itself is not toxic but the toxins produced are what’s toxic -caused by the toxin made by C. botulinum, not by the bacterium itself -commercially canned goods undergo "botulinum cook" at 121 °C (250 °F) for 3 minutes -home-canned foods are more susceptible -unusual sources: -garlic or herbs stored covered in oil -improperly handled baked potatoes wrapped in aluminium foil , -home-canned or fermented fish -three main kinds of botulism: 1) Foodborne botulism -symptoms of foodborne botulism: -occur between 12–36 hours after consuming the botulinum toxin -double and/or blurred vision -difficulty swallowing, severe constipation -muscle weakness, lead to body paralysis -respiratory failure 2) Wound botulism  happens when bacteria infects wounds  happen in WWI 3) Infant botulism  kids ingest soil particles with spores of bacteria and in stomach at proper environment, it reproduces and releases toxins • Bacteria: Salmonella -smonella bacteria are found naturally in the intestines of animals, (especially poultry and swine), birds, reptiles, some pets and some humans -the bacteria can also be found in the environment -people who eat food contaminated by Salmonella can become ill with salmonellosis -small turtles common source of the illness -the symptoms of salmonellosis can feel like the flu -usually no need for treatment -infants, the elderly and people who are immunocompromised may require hospitalization -long-term complications may include severe arthritis -Jan 30, 2009- U.S. and Canadian recall of peanut butter cookies and cookie bars made by Arico Natural Foods Company of Beaverton, Ore. -Jan 31, 2009- The Canadian Food Inspection Agency recalled 30 different products that are manufactured in Canada, and another American made products -most of the new products added to the list are various types of peanut, caramel and protein bars, and ice cream cones -the federal agency says no illnesses are reported -February 03, 2009 - The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has added 17 new American-made peanut products to its growing recall list -the agency says the foods contain peanut products that have been recalled in the U.S. and Canada by a Georgia processor due to possible salmonella contamination -the latest recall includes snack bars under the Cinch, Detour and Supreme Protein brands, plus Ocean Spray cranberry and nut trail mix -the federal agency says no illnesses have been reported in Canada -a widespread salmonella outbreak in the U.S. linked to peanuts from the Georgia plant has left more than 500 people sick and has been tied to 8 deaths -nearly 100 tainted products on the list • Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis) -found in soil, vegetation, water, sewage, silage and in the feces of humans and animals -animals and humans can carry the bacterium without knowing it -Listeria can survive and sometimes grow on foods being stored in the refrigerator -foods that are contaminated with this bacterium look, smell and taste normal -Listeria can be killed by proper cooking procedures -normally found in our intestines (animals too)  higher number  problem -serious disease called listeriosis, especially among pregnant women, the elderly or individuals with a weakened immune system
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