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Lecture 10

EESA10 - Lecture 10.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Lecture 10 Environmental Hazards to Specific Populations Environmental Hazards to Specific Populations1Childrens environmental health2Womens health and environment 3Workers and noise hazards 4Elderly and environmental health1A Childrens Environmental Health Different exposure patterns bw children and adultsWhy children are so vulnerable why are they so sensitive Differences in exposure patterns ie Different diet of the children different behaviour specially unique to children how the children spend their time and the impact of the short statue of the childrenThe Limited Diet of ChildrenKids eat breath and drink more than adults but not in total in proportion to their body sizeThey eat drink and breath more air in proportion to their body size than adultsie 3 to 4 times more food in proportion to their body size than adultsAlso they generally eat fewer types of food in contrast adults eat more variety of the foodMost of the kids until age 1 their diet consists of milk breast milk or formula or cows milk40 to 60 of the diet of children of one year of age is comprised of only milk aloneIn mothers milk for instance there is 3 fat most of organic chemicals such as dioxins DDT or some other PCBs are fat solubleMost of organic chemicals are fat soluble means that if the milk has that contaminant or substance in it that will definitely be in higher percentage in milk with higher fat than in milk with lower fatthat means kids will definitely be exposed to these contaminants than adultsLarge quantities of specific foodskids eat some foods much more than adults depends on taste age on family habit 15 to 17 more times more apple juice for children than adults 14 to 15 times more pears or some other fruit for children in relation to adultsWe offer our children with more fruits at an early age than teenage years or adulthoodKids drink significantly more water relative to their body weight4 times more than adults Teenagers change our habits significantly as we drink much less water than younger kidsInstead of water teenagers drink more softdrinks and that is the change in habitBehaviour unique to childrenKids touch their mouth very oftenthey explore to see if it is something hard or hot or coldMouthing behaviour 26 year olds touch their mouths about 9 times every hourIngestion of soil deliberate or compulsive behaviourwe talked about it with heavy metals and soil risk assessmentKids with disabilities can do that even more be under higher risk to ingest contaminants through the soilPaint in house is also a source of leadSmall objects we see in the news how companies have to recall toys they have a small object that can be ingested that represents a high risk for kids ie magnets can cause infection of the gastrointestinal tract intestines and they can be deadly illness Infectious agents bacteria viruses associated with soil dust because kids touch their mouths all the time they can ingest more viruses and bacteria and fungi Kids also wash their hands less often than adults during the day you have to reminds kids
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