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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
E E S A10

Ahmed Sarwar 997471187 EESA10H3 Y "HUMAN HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT" Assignment #2 TA: Aman Saini To be completed: By Monday, July 23 at 5 pm 1. Explain your answer in less than one page. Provide at least TWO scholarly references in total (at least ONE journal reference) (2 points) A. What factors do yellow fever and malaria have in common? (1 points) Both are transmitted by infected mosquitoes and cannot be transferred directly from one human to another. B. What factors are different in comparing the two diseases? (2 points) Yellow fever is a viral disease while malaria is distributed by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The incubation period for malaria is between 3 to 6 days while the yellow fever is between 7 to 30 days. C. Why are yellow fever and malaria not threats at present in North America? (1 points) Both are common in the tropics and the equatorial region as mosquitoes thrive in warmth and humidity. D. Why is malaria such a significant hazard in Africa? (3 points) Some types of malaria are resistant to penicillin which causes the disease to spread a lot faster. People in Africa do not have a proper health care system and do not receive regular treatments due to lack of supplies. The protozoa that cause malaria are eukaryotes that are harder to terminate than normal viruses. E. Why does the number of West Nile virus cases in people increase in warmer weather? (1 points) As mosquitoes thrive in warm and humid weather, the virus becomes common as the number of mosquitoes multiplies. Ahmed Sarwar 997471187 EESA10H3 Y 2. Write a criticism of the following proposition: “Although it is impossible to measure the gains exactly, a moderately warmer climate would be likely to benefit Americans in many ways, especially in health and in satisfying people's preferences for more warm weather. Most people would enjoy higher temperatures, and the evidence supports the proposition that humans would live longer and avoid some sickness. Less cold weather would mean less snow shoveling, fewer days of driving on icy roads, lower heating bills, and reduced outlays for clothing”. Discuss possible risks and benefits of global warming to human health. [10 points (4 points for risks of global warming to human health/ 4 points for benefits of global warming to human health/ 2 points for references)]Explain you answer in less than one page. Provide at least TWO scholarly references in total (at least ONE journal reference). Risks: High temperatures would cause an increase ozone levels and other pollutants in the air causing cardiovascular and respiratory disease increasing mortality rate. Also high temperatures would raise the amount of pollen and other allergens which increase risks of asthma. Global warming would cause bouts of extreme heat that would increase droughts affecting food production and water supply affecting the population. Also the extreme heat would cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems especially in the elderly. Extreme weather patterns would cause natural disasters and increase in sea level, increasing variable rainfall and cause floods which would affect and contaminate the natural water supply causing increase in diseases. Change in climate would increase number of insects that carry diseases such as mosquitoes carrying malaria also increasing the transmission and geographic range Benefits: Warmer temperature would increase the yield of staple foods increasing the food production reducing risks of famine. Also it would cause variability in rainfall causing it to increase in dry areas and decrease in flood areas. Winters would become milder leading to less people affected by virally spread diseases, would decrease winter related deaths such as vehicle accidents and would lead to decrease human contact as people would spend less time inside houses. It would decrease Carbon dioxide emissions in houses leading to better indoor air quality and better health. It would decrease the use of motorized transport urging people to walk on foot resulting in a healthier population and would decrease air pollution Ahmed Sarwar 997471187 EESA10H3 Y 3. To minimize their exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus their risk of skin cancer, people have increased their use of sunscreen lotions in recent decades. Recently, however, some research has shown that chemicals in sunscreens may themselves pose some risk to human health. The compounds most commonly used as UV protestants are fat soluble, environmentally persistent, and prone to bioaccumulation. Moreover, they exhibit estrogenic effects in laboratory rats (see Schlumpf,et al., 2001, as cited in the source note to the graph). Although the benefits of the sunscreen use are substantial, the possible risks
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