EESA11 Lec 7 Possible Questions

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Maria Dittrich

EESA11 Lec 7 Possible Questions 1) Provide the basic morphological/physiological features of the diatoms and the dinoflagellates. What is a red tide? a. Dinoflagellates – has 2 flagella, long clusters of protein strands b. A red tide is a bloom of a dinoflagellate (Gonyaulax), it produces a toxin that accumulates in the fish and shellfish that eat them 2) Why cyanobacteria are characterized as “bad” algae? Which are the factors that favour cyanobacteria dominance? a. Cyanobacteria have toxins they release that attack the liver (hepatotoxins) and nervous system (neurotoxins) b. Favours factoring cyanobacteria dominance: i. High temperature optima ii. Low light-energy requirements iii. Superior uptake kinetics iv. N2-fixation v. Buoyancy hypothesis vi. Less susceptible to zooplankton grazing vii. Excretion of organic compounds to suppress growth of other algae viii. Produce toxins 3) Provide the definition of eutrophication. Which are the symptoms of cultural eutrophication? a. The process when a body of water becomes enriched in dissolved nutrients, stimulating the growth of aquatic plant life, usually resulting in the depletion of dissolved oxygen\ b. Symptoms of cultural eutrophication: i. Increase in phytoplankton standing crop (biomass) and biomass at other trophic levels ii. Algal blooms iii. Massive growth of cyanobacteria iv. Complete oxygen depletion and high nutrient concentration v. H2S, NH4, non-mineralized organic matter, CH4 found in hypolimnion as a result of anaerobic respiration vi. Invertebrates and fish communities change vii. Macrophytes and periphyton increase 4) Provide Liebig’s law of limiting factor. a. The global velocity of the reaction depends on the scarcest sub
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