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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Maria Dittrich

EESA11 - Lecture 2 Global Climate Change * Prof said she won't ask more than what is in the slides* The Greenhous Effect Solar radiation - some energy goes back and never reaches the earth. Some gets absorbed by the Earth. Low energy infrared radiation - greenhouse effect Climate Change- has happened several times before e.g. ice ages (midterm what is the first ice age...dates of those...and where) - huge economical and poltical consequences - immigration and emigration from and to different countries in Europe. Global increase in temperature - atmospheric temperature - Ocean temperatures have risen in the past century - needs a lot of energy to do this - we can see the connection between this and the various greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. - (from graph) - we are now facing huge increase in temperatures - steady increase WHOLETRUTH - our measurements were not done the same way as before - errors and misinterpretations - e.g. in the 40s and 50s, temperatures were measured near the cities - lots of buildings and vehicles which adds to the temperature. 1995-2004 - measured the same way so there's no doubt about its reliability - measure temperature via glaciers - way to find out the temperature hundreds of years ago How is global warming manifesting itself *midterm what kinds of indeces that indicates global warming* 1) Snow and ice melt - this is no doubt one of the most obvious indications of the effects of global warming - records can prove this - thinner ice - acculuating thikness of all the glaciers in the world are measured and from this, they found out that all the glaciers are getting thinner and thinner. - cause of concern since these glaciers are sources of drinking water - loss of glaciiers - loss of water 2) Sea levels rise - different estimations of the different levels of water rise - e.g. Greenland - may be gone if sea water rises - 7 m aroun the earth - lowlands are vulnerable - sea level has risen over 120 m since the last ice age 20 k years ago - NOW - 1-3 mm/yr rise *midterm* of sea levels - 3 mm annual estimates Greenhouse gases and their sources - temperature and gases are connected - greenhouse effect The Basic Mechanism - lowradiation *remmebr greenhoue gases* - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, tropospheric ozone - CO2 is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere -55% *she will ask these numbers** check slide* Table 7.1 - changes in the concentration - none of them are decreasing - but what is more important is that the numbers in the warming potential compared to CO2 *know thse for midterm* - this means that t hey have more or less warmning potential than CO2 *she will ask which one is more r less vs CO2* - through the years, CO2 goes back and forth - summer and winter months contribute to these fluctuations - summer = more vegetation, takes in more CO2 so it goes down...winter = less vegetation, more CO2 - so seasonal changes contrbute to these but the important thing is that it's increasing - Oceans - plays a tremendous role in the balance of CO2 - why ocean? - they absorb a lot of hear - hey have a huge community which takes CO2 off the atmosphere (e.g. marine plytooplankton) so these are like the plants of the ocean - biological pump *she will ask this on the final* - explain - CO2 comes from the atmosphere - equilibrium - phytoplankton can be eaten in the food chain - poop comes down at the bottom of the ocean floow - marine snow - important mechanism for the global CO2 balance - suggestion to feen these phytoplankton at the bottom of the sea - once the ocean takes in CO2 - chankges t he balance *no formula!* it gets ore proon - acidified so if it gets more CO2 - onec
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