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Lecture 3

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Environmental Science
Maria Dittrich

EESA11 - Lecture 3 -Acidic Deposition *slides are enough for this topic* Quiz - 4-5 for lectures 1 and 2, 3 from lecture 3 Acid Pollutants - Sulfur dioxides and Nitrogen oxides are the major precursors of acid deposition *QUIZ* - both can have wet and dry conditions - both create acids - *memorize the products they make - Sunlight increases the rate of transformation wet deposition- this transformation is difficult to predict - rain, clouds dry deposition - Dry = sulfate, nitrate - Carbon dioxide is another pollutant - weak vs sulfuric and nitric which are strong What is an acid? - amount of H+ ions - Acid rain has a pH of 4 - same as coke Usual conditions in the atmospheratmosphereis 5.6 - same as carbonic acid since there's an abundance of CO2 in the atmosphere Acid rain - sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acid - this is anthropogenic pH - remember formula - acid formula is just H+ - important to know as it affects auatic systems History - has been monitorednoticed since 1872 by Robert Smith Souces of Sulfur and Nitrogen - transportation and electric power plants *know these* Anthropogenic Emissions - *know source of emissions from sectors* *difference in Canada?* - sources? - coal burning electrical plants (not in canada), smelts, pulp milling - so mainly stationary sources Sulfur Oxides inCanada - Industrial Sources vs in USA - Electrical Sources Oxides of Nitrogen - more difficult to control - since its main source are cars/transportation - same in both Canada and US Location - Industrial areas - Eastern - because of the climate, all the precursors go to Canada from the US - atmospheric movement (air) - in Europe - Great Britain - all connected to air movements - Asia - whole area might be affected by 2020 - in US - mostly monitored nowadays - easier to follow how its distributed - in 1995 --> Eastern US has the lowest acidity --- 2005 --> it gets better except from the Southern US states - all the same from Sulfuric and Nitric acid What are the impacts? - Soil Impacts - leaching of nutrients - Water impacts - acidification of lakes, fish deaths - Buildings Buffers - Limestone and marble - neutralizes acid rain - exchange of ions - in the atmosphere, there are ammonium ions that can neutralize acid rain - this is anthropogenic induced *wil only ask which cations can buffer acid rain* Ca, Na, magnesium Magnesium - rampant in Florida Impact on Forestry Crown die-back - soil loses its nutrients as it tries to buffer the acid rain - uses its cations instead of giving it to the trees - top of the trees suffer *Indirec
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