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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Marney Isaac

LECTURE 2 - Chapter 1 and 2 are in American order, NOT Canadian - Two possible ways to convert rock into soil : physical weathering and biogeochemical weathering (chemical change) this is where we get clay, which is chemically active. Sand is just a tiny rock, not chemically active - Rock (parent material), influenced by topography - Soil is function of parent material, climate, topography, time, and biota all happening overtime - Regolith: the unconsodilated mantle of weathered rocks and soil on earths surface. LOOSE earth material over solid rock. - Soils are highly diverse and variable - Horizons: - Weathered: starts to become more complex, starts breaking up into different horizons. Horizons A, B, C - Unweathered: can happen by chemical and physical processes - 4 main processes of soil horization ( WILL BE ON MIDTERM) a) Translocation: litter moving down, decomposes and moves into soil ( acids and salts) b) Transformation: clay boculation, changes chemically in soil c) Additions: plant matter ( dead leaves) d) Losses: another term for losses is water runoff , leeching at the bottom of soil ( leaching can contain nutrients, organic matter) - Topography is key element in examining soil - We don’t use E in the canadian - O: organic matter from fallen leaves/animals. Freshly decomposed debris - Soil isnt being added on top of parent material, it’s working down into unweathered material. - We start seeing differentiation of soil horizons in Southern Ontario ( last glaciation) 10-12,000 years ago. Contains 2-3 m of soil. Soil in africa is much more old - Nonsoil, (regosol, brunisol, luvisol ) 3 of the 10 soil oders in canada - The older the soil, the DEEPER the horizons - Canada uses L, F, H ( litter, fluvic, humus) - Canada uses Ae ( indicate eluviated horizon ). Eluviation: It is a loss
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