Lec 6 - Confined Feeding Animal Operation.docx

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Environmental Science
Zachariah Campbell

Confined Feeding Animal Operation Meat Consumption StatisticsPast 40 years world meat production has more than double in millions tons oIn 200438 produced is pork25 produced is beef30 produced is poultry 7 produced is sheep goat duck buffalo yak etc oSince 1961 world meat production PER PERSON has almost doubled from 22kgperson to 38kgperson Latest highest increase seen in developing countries but rapid growth for meat production per person has been seen in industrial countries much earlier than developing Industrial countries started increase meat in gross amounts decades earlier than developing countries did Input of meat production oOne calorie of beef requires 1117 calories of feed o80 of soybean harvest is eaten by animals not people oFeed could contain meat and bones causing mad cow disease which affects thousands of cattle o8 ounces of beef requires 25000L of water oCows pigs and chickens get 70 of all microbial drugs in US oFossil fuels a calorie of beef takes 33 more fossil fuel energy to produce than a calorie from a potato Outputs of meat productionoManure from intensive pig operations stored in lagoons can leak into groundwater or pollute nearby surface water oBelching and flatulence livestock emit 16 of worlds annual production of methane powerful green house gas oDiseases from eating meat arise Eating animal products in high saturated fat and cholesterol is linked to cancer heart disease and other chronic illnesses Factory farm conditions can spread E coli salmonella and foodborne pathogens CreutzfeldtJaakob disease the human variant of mad cow disease has killed at least 150 peopleThe ChickenOriginated from Red Jungle Fowl oDomesticated in India 3200 BC oDomesticated in China 1400 BCoPopular for cock fighting religious rituals first Meat and egg production came later The natural habitat of chicken is the forest They are supposed to be wild oScratching and pecking is instinctive since natural food are insect and seeds found within forest litter oFast short distance fliers oRoost in tall trees oBreeds once per year 1012 eggs per hen oEat stones to help gizzard function Gizzard a muscular thickwalled part of a birds stomach for grinding food typically with grit Produced in floor production Freerange and cage production battery cages oBattery hens are more crowded and stressed Hens artificially inseminated to provide eggs that will hatch all at the same timethis is how chickens are rearedoChickens are sexedmales are binned and ground into animal feed if intention is to raise layers Layers chickens raised for eggs Broilers chickens raised for meat Male chickens are worthless to egg industry since they dont lay eggs and they are too small to be used for flesh Theyre thrown into trashbag while alive and suffocated Or they are thrown into highspeed grinders while alive
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