Lec 7 - Recombinant Biotechnology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Zachariah Campbell

Recombinant Biotechnology How to Move Genes between Organisms Definitions Biotechnology the study use and development of techniques that use living organisms or substances produced by living organisms to make or modify a product to improve microorganisms plans or animals for economic exploitation or the improvement of the quality of life oExamples of classical biotechnology winebeer making bread making cheese making soy sauce production of antibiotics selective breeding of cropslivestock exploitation of biodegenerative bacteria oModern biotechnology uses recombinant DNA rDNA technology Recombinant DNA transfers genes from one species to factory organisms to increase production of rare proteinsenzymes oManipulation of genetic content of organisms to alter their properties may include the introduction of transgenes from other organisms Transgene an exogenous gene introduced to genome of another organismsoSteps for rDNABiodiversitysearch for desirable traitsfind genetic determinants of such traitsExtract DNA from organisms with desirable traitsisolate genes of interest aka target genes TG clone genes into bacteriayeast etc for mass production alteration and reassociation with other genetic elements Clone genes are put into bacteriayeast for mass production In bacteria alteration and reassociation of genetic sequence occurs to insert the introduced genetic elements oThey can be introduced to plant tissues Plants are grown and selected for desirable genetically modified plants This maintains the GM plant cell line These plants are used as parents for future hybrids Hybrids are tests and then marketed oThey can be introduced to animal germ tissues The GM babies are hatched or the gene is only implanted and the baby is born The babies are raised and selected for desirable properties Breed and select offspring with TG in germ cells eggsperm Clone or breed adult GM organisms for market httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvZW9zPdbBs0Different types of cloningoMolecular or gene cloning cloning of DNA genesvirusesregulatory elements for lab production oCellular cloning derive a cell line from single cells to produce clones of bacteria yeast tissue or stem cellsoOrganism cloning derive multicellular adult from embryonic or adult cells Central DogmaDNA sequences determines RNA sequence which determines AA sequence which becomes functional protein or enzyme oGenes encode for proteinsand are preceded by promoters as well as associated with other proteins that regulate their expressionoGenetic code is universal between all organisms oIn DNA sequence we can recognize promoter motifs and stretches of sequence that likely encode for a protein rather than a promoter or stop oIn prokaryotic organisms related genes those affecting same metabolic pathway or function are often found together in operonsOperons are regulated and transcribed in concertcertain order oIn Eukaryotic organisms genes have coding and noncoding regions and RNA must be modified before translation Related genes are scattered around the genome
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