EESA05 Lecture 07 Notes.docx

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Environmental Science
Caroline Barakat

EESA05 Lecture 07  Drop off assignment outside of TA box on the 5 floor of SW  Queen Charlotte fault is a transform fault so it’s our “San Andreas” fault  Severe earthquakes happen on the convergent boundary and transform, the ones along divergent are not as bad  In Turkey you get a lot of strike slip faults  The recent BC earthquake was a strike slip fault  Tsunami is a Japanese word for “harbour wave”  Always generated when there’s a displacement of water  Triggered by large earthquakes which causes an uplift of sea floor, underwater landslides, volcano flank collapse, submarine volcanic explosion, asteroid which produce huge tsunamis  The earthquake cycle: when plates slide past each other, a lot of stress is put on the rocks causing rocks to deform and when this stress is built up to the max that’s when they break because they have an elastic quality, and this is when earthquake happen causing a displacement in the rocks on both sides  Foreshock = shock before the earthquake happen, mini movement or tremor…this is very minor, not that major; could be days before the earthquake  Stages of Earthquakes: stage 1 = long period of inactivity; stage 2 =elastic strain produces small earthquakes stage 3 = foreshocks extended; stage 4 = earthquake  Brittleness is the tendency of a solid material to fracture when a deforming stress exceeds the material’s elastic limit  Ductile = ability of that thing to take a new form  Tsunamis are large waves generated by any significant disturbance of the ocean; most common cause is an earthquake on the seafloor, the water gets lifted when the plate lifts; and NEVER refer to it as a tidal wave; it can also cause by underwater volcanoes, landslides, or meteorite impact; tsunamis travel very fast 500-800km/hour with low amplitude and very long wavelength and it moves straight on so it doesn’t lose its energy; the shore acts like a stopper causing the water to become a huge wall of water due to the remaining wave of water coming faster behind  Wavelength is the differences in the amplitude (?)  Tsunami travels deep in the ocean (with low amplitude and long wavelength) so it’s hard to detect it; so in the Indonesian tsunami specifically the boats off the shore didn’t feel it  Wind waves come and go, and they actually look prettier while tsunamis run quickly and they just travel (looking like a blanket)  Tsunamis come in wave trains  All tsunami are caused by displacement of water  Tsunami wave powers are not recognized off shore but once it reaches shore it becomes very destructive  Tsunami at japan had a magnitude of 9.0 near the east coast of Honshu, Japan; the plate that caused this only displaced by little but the tsunami itself was HUGE; killed more than 16,000 people; caused US$309 billion worth of damage; very significant event  Tsunami at Sumatra: 2004, another large one; happened along the seismic boundaries of these plates;  oblique fault you get major thrust fault (off shore); (on shore) you get transform/strike slip faults; tsunamis are caused by thrust faults  Dec 26/2004 was the worst tsunami due to the greater amount of deaths and damage ; killed over 250 000 people  Factors that made this tsunami so deadly: dense populated areas, lack of warning system, warnings were misguided due to the incorrect estimate measure of the magnitude, geometry of wave source; **the energy was spread north-south and not east- west  Tsunami are deadly for other reasons such as: lack of education about what to do during
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