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Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Lecture Six N Precipitation o Precipitation measured in mm For example 20mm of rain would mean in 1 m there would be 20 L of rain, or that the thickness of the amount of rain that fell is 20mm o High Intensity & Short Duration Large amount of precipitation falling in a very short time can create flash floods o Lower Intensity & Long Duration Large amount of precipitation falls steadily over a longer time o Hurricanes Ex: Hazel in 1954 or Katrina in 2005 o Monsoon Ex: Pakistani floods began in July 2010 following heavy monsoon rains N Watershed (Drainage Basin) o The upstream area from which surface water flows towards the channel o Drainage Divide Topographic line or boundary separating watersheds N 99.9% of all rivers flow only to one oceanseaetc. o One exception is Two Ocean Creek in Kicking Horse Pass N River Flow and Sediment Transport o Discharge Q (m s) Measured volume of water flowing past a cross section of a river in a given amount of time. o Water flows fastest at top of river due to decreased friction. o Hydrograph A graph ofhow discharge changes over time. Can show how long flooding is and when the peak of it is o Stream Gradient & Floodplains Gradient Slope of the river channel; typically decreases downstream Floodplain relatively flat lowland that bordersa river, usually dry but subject to flooding
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