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University of Toronto Scarborough
Environmental Science
Jovan Stefanovic

Lecture Eight N Energy Ability or capacity to do work o Force (F = m * a; unit Newton N) moving a mas with a particular acceleration o Work (W = F * distance; unit Joule J) o Power (P = W time; unit Js = watt) rate of doing work o Types of Energy Potential Energy Stored Energy PE = mgh 2 Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion KE = mv o Heat Energy and Heat Transfer Kinetic energy of atoms and molecules within a substance N Sensible Heat N Latent Heat (Storedhidden heat) o Evaporation 600 calories per gram of water are added called latent heat of vaporization o Condensation heat energy is released Convection Movement of heat energy within a medium (Ex: boiling water) Conduction Transfer of heat energy between two surfaces in direct contact N Electromagnetic Energy Energy emitted by the sun. N Radiation, Absorption, Scattering and Temperature o Hot objects radiate more rapidly and short waves than do cool objects o 4O4-M0.943,79K88:71,.0,-847-,O,7J0,24:3941L3.42L3J84O,7 energy o Reflection (albedo) ability to reflect electromagnetic energy (% reflected) o Scattering Short wavelengths of visible light (blue & violet) are scattered more effectively than longer wavelength (red). Ex: midday and sunset N Composition of the Atmosphere o Major components of clean, dry air Nitrogen (N) 78% Oxygen (O )2 21% Argon and other gases Carbon Dioxide (CO ) 0.036% 2 N Absorbs heat energy from Earth o Relative humidity 7,9L43419K0,L78,.9:,OZ,907;,547.439039 compared with the amount of water vapor required for saturation at that temperature (and pressure) N Atmospheric Pressure Weight of air at sea level o 14.7 lbs per square inch o 1 kg per square centimeter o Milibar (mb) standard sea level pressure is 1013.2 mb
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