EESA05 LEC 5.docx

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Environmental Science
Mandy Meriano

VOLCANIC FORMS- CALDERA The most famous caldera in NAis Yellowstone This truly massive volcano is a hot spot that erupts about every 600,000 years VOLCANIC HAZARDS hazards Lava flows Ash falls: can cover vast areas of landscape. The ash is like a very fine powder, it is known to choke aircraft engines, and it a hazards for generating lahars Famine: the culprit is ash if it travels all over the earth because it is a physical barrier to sunlight and planet became colder Tsunami Gas emissions: may be toxic or corrosive, the most common is water and the most hazardous one is carbon dioxide which can cause suffocation by driving away oxygen; trees can be killed by this. Sometimes they have vents at the bottom at the lakes because magma sits close to the surface Mitigation of this is being carried out by reducing the CO2 content of the lakes; a suspended pipe draws CO2 saturates water from the depths of the lake (they release it) Benefits Soil fertility: rich in minerals, making them both exceptionally fertile and providing additional health benefits in the foods grown on the soils Hot springs and geothermal power: near surface magma means heat and ground water will be heated Hot spring is a body of water that is at least 5C warmer then the average annual air temperature in its area Ageyser is a hot spring that discharges water intermittently as the result of the water being heated to steam geysers: for a geyser to form, there must be a source of water, a source of heat and the underground “plumbing system” must ordinarily restrict water flow from the surface the restriction allows pressure to rise so that the water remains liquid until the pressure is sufficient to overcome the overlying pressure HOT WATER AND GEOTHERMAL POWER Anaturally occurring system of heating water is more then just a geological curiosity- it can be used to generate power The source of water is usually rain, this water can seep thru fractures downward towards the active magma chamber After being heated, the water returned to the surface as steam or hot water Once the water rises to the surface, it may be used to generate power by driving a turbine Depending on conditions, the power plant may use steam from the ground to turn the turbine PREDICTION OF VOLCANIC HAZARDS 2 main precursors that signal an impeding volcanic eruption… 1. Increased seismic activity below the volcano 2. Tilting and swelling of the volcanos sides 3. Increa
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