Environmental Hazards Week 1 Notes.docx

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Environmental Science
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Mandy Meriano

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Natural Hazards Week 1 Notes Hazard – Naturally occurring, affects human interests Risk - Probability of event occurring multiplied by impact on people and property Disaster – Effect of hazard on society -> property damage, injury, loss of life Catastrophe – Massive disaster Hazards can actually provide a benefit -> (ex) rich soil near volcanoes and on floodplains Increases in population pressures people to live in dangerous areas (prone to hazards) Hazards come from natural processes, which are understandable -> Hazards are predictable Internal forces within earth:  Plate tectonics  Result od internal energy of the earth External forces on earth’s surface:  Atmospheric effects  Energy from the sun Geological Cycle – Processes involving materials on or near the earth’s surface; including tectonic cycle, rock cycle, hydrologic cycle and biogeochemical cycles Tectonic cycle – Involves the creation, movement and destruction of tectonic plates. Explains the dynamic processes of the earth’s surface. Due to the internal energy of the earth. Layers – Crust (continental and oceanic), mantle (asthenosphere (upper mantle(weaker layer beneath the lithosphere))), outer core and inner core) Lithospheric Plates – Not a continuous layer, broken into plates. Move relative to each other a few cm/year. Plate boundaries are areas of geologic activity (earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building). Possible for activity to occur in middle of plates, but less common. Two types -> oceanic (dark, dense) and continental (light, buoyant) Plate Tectonics – Lithosphere broken into plates -> slip on the asthenosphere. Convection currents caused by hot inner core push and pull on plates. Plates are defined by where breaks occur (location of earthquakes). Three types of plate boundaries – divergent, convergent and transform boundaries. Divergent Plate Boundaries – Plat
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