Lecture 3 study guide (2010 fall semester)

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Environmental Science
Cynthia Bongard

Lecture 3: Contemporary Cues for Limits & Driving Forces Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: low latitude or closer to equator, the more species diversity (seen in birds) 30% of worlds 9040 bird species occur in Amazon, and another 16% in Indonesia Rainforest is 6% of world land mass, but have more than half of worlds species Similar pattern for shallow marine fauna: plankton, benthos (bottom dwellers), and especially coral reefs (greatest diversity) Exceptions: in temperate zones, there are a few plants and animals that are more diverse: conifers, aphids, salamanders Possible factors generally contributing to biodiversity: Climate (precipitation, humidity and etc.) Solar energy Amount of habitable terrain Variety of habitats available Amount of frequency of environmental disturbance Degree of isolation of the faunas and floras (all of animal and plant life of any particular region or time) Idiosyncrasies of history: Energy-Stability-Area Theory of Biodiversity (ESA Theory): 1. The more solar energy, the greater diversity However, energy and biomass alone do not explain tropical dominance of biological diversity. Why dont we have one super species in each habitat? Very few habitats do have dominant species, a lot dont, however. Rapoports Rule: www.notesolution.com
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