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LECTURE 1.docx

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Environmental Science
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Ken Howard

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LECTURE 1: FALL TERM 2013 - Catalyst of modern civilization : groundwater - Sustainable water management - Green revolution “agriculture” - People managed groundwater as surface water. - Surface water: found in lakes and rivers (measured, pushed around, irrigated, piped) - - Romans moved water around, collected water and built structures to convey the water. - Darcy’s law dates back to 1856 (155 years old) . Did basic experiments to create fountains , came up with darcy’s law. Fundamental to groundwater flow. Groundwater flows thru the system based on darcy’s law. Ohm’s law is also imp. - Aquifers in the subsurface allow water to flow to well, represents huge storage reservoirs - Meinzer’s work dates back to 1920’s - Groundwater exists in the subsurface, very ubiquitous - Out of the 4 litres of water available on the planet, 3 of them are frozen water (inaccessible) - 98% of water is groundwater (volumes of storage) - Flow velocities: 1 m/s in highland creek. 1m/day . Sometimes it may be 10 cm/day - People idealize that rocks/soil are a filter system, and keep dumping contaminants. - Surface water flow, some goes into lakes and lakes discharge into rivers and eventually gets into oceans (FAST ROUTE) - Anything that infiltrates becomes groundwater or aquifer recharge and then discharges to surface water or takes a very long route and discharges to oceans (OVER-TIME ROUTE) - IWRM: manage whole water cycle - Aquifers: saturated with water (porous rock) - Aquitards: silty rocks, fine grained rock , get a lot of water in them but don’t transmit very well - Aquicludes: stores water as well but are imperbeable , went out of fashion for 30 years but is coming back again. There’s no such thing as an aquiclude b/c everything transmits water if enough pressure is applied to it - Aquifuge: tough to find, solid rock - Hydraulic conductivity is how easily water flows through rock and porosi
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