bio diversity review.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Financial Accounting
Mark Fitzpatrick

Unit 4: Biodiversity Biodiversity Importance: water supply, prevent erosion, nutrient storage, pollution cleaning, climate stability -The higher the biodiversity, the healthier the ecosystem, and more resistance to invasive species Threats: Habitat Destruction, over exploitation, competition by invasive species, and climate change Classification: to group things in a meaningful way, for identification, for education purposes -Use of molecular evidence, anatomy and appearance, and geographical location Carolus Linnaeus: father of taxonomy, a method of grouping animals into Taxons Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species -> Kids put chocolate on father’s good shirt Binomial Nomenclature: 2 word species naming based on anatomy. Genus Name: capitalized first letter, underlined or italicized on the computer Species Name: underlined or italicized if on the computer Cell Types: Prokaryotes: larger in size -No nuclear membrane -No cellular membrane -No cytoplasm -Cell wall present and complex -Single circular chromosome arrangement -Binary Fission division -No meiosis, but DNA transfer through conjugation Eukaryotes: smaller in size -true nucleus, membrane, and nucleoli -cellular membrane -cell wall, simple -Cytoplasm and cytoplasmic streaming -Multiple linear chromosomes with histones -Mitosis cell division -Meiosis sexual reproduction Classification Archaea: unique RNA and are prokaryotes -Unicellular, asexual, nutrients through absorption, extreme conditions, anaerobes -uses inorganic molecule and light, membrane and cells chemically unique Eukarya: unique RNA and are eukaryotes Fungi: multi/unicellular, no tissues, no photosynthesis, asexual, cell walls, land, absorbed nutrients Protista: aquatic, unicellular, ingestion & photosynthesis, asexual/sexual Anamalia: land/water, multicellular, no photosynthesis, ingestion, sexual but some asexual, tissues Plantae: multicellular, cell walls, photosynthesis and absorption, asexual and sexual, land/water tissues Eubacteria: unique RNA and are prokaryotes Eubacteria: unicellular, ingests and photosynthesis, asexual, membranes, land/water, anaerobe Kingdom Archaebacteria: lives in extreme conditions with limited primitive living requirements Methanogens: give off methane, byproduct of metabolism, sewage Halophiles: love salt, give off purple scum on water Thermophiles: hot temperatures, highly related to eukaryotes in genetic sequences Kingdom Eubacteria: Shapes: Cocci: spherical, Staph: cluster Baccili: rod shaped (Baccilus Anthracis) Spirilli: Spirochete or sprillium: spiral shaped (syphilis) Cell wall type Gram Positive = thick = absorbs more stain = purple Gram Negative = thin = absorbs less stain = pink Energy Source Photoautotrophs: photosynthetic bacteria Chemoautotrophs: uses inorganic materials as food Photoheterotrophic: uses light & other things to have food Chemoheterotrophic: uses inorganic materials & ingests other food for energy Eukarya Protista: unicellular, aquatic, ingestion, sexual & asexual Movement Sarcodines (Pseudopodia): movement by moving cytoplasm around Flagellates: uses whip like tail to move around Sporozoan: not motile Cilliates: uses small cilia to move Paramecium: lives in ponds and uses ciliates Amoeba: Sarcodines, engulfs food Slime Molds: fungus like, spore reproduction, mobile with cellulose cell walls Algae: green plant, photosynthesis Green Algae: fresh water, reproduce spores, flagella Diatoms: ocean algae, planktons, rigid walls, asexual/sexual Kingdom Fungi: Benefits: yeasts, beer, food, medicine, pesticides Harm: toxin, diseases, allergic reaction More similar to animals than plants, heterotrophs and uses enzymes to digest Chitin: cells found on exoskeletons Hyphae: network of file filaments, +ive and –ive bonds to make a spore Mycelium: group of hyphae Feeding Saprophytes: sprays digestive enzymes in air, killing anything in the air and absorbing it Parasites: live off other cells, draining nutrients from them without killing them Symbiotic Fungi: lives with roots of plants, supplying them with nutrients and it supplies the plants with sugars Reproduction Zygomycotes: + and – hyphae fuse together, creates a wall and waits till embryos are ready Basidiomyotes (club fungi): + and – hyphae fuses together, stores in puffballs and popps Asycomycotes: + and – hyphae fuses together to make spores in a sack, pressure builds up and it explodes, flying the spores everywhere Deuteromycotes: asexual only, source of penicillin Viruses: non-living RNA and DNA with protein, smaller than most cells and bacteria Shapes Icosahedral: 20 sided shapes Helical Shaped Mixed: Helical + Rod Rod: (rabies virus) Host/Tissue Limited Tissue Broad Range Limited range RNA vs DNA virus RNA: attach to cells and spit viral information into cell, they will attach and copy viral data until it bursts out DNA: sticks a part of the virus into a DNA gene, hiding, destroying, or corrupting that data, making it unreadable and possibly causing cancer. Reproduction Lytic: Attachment, Entry, Replication, Assembly, Lysis/Release Lysogenic: viral DNA copied within strands of normal chromosome, as normal cell replicates, the viral information follows it. If the cell’s immune sequences have been compromised, the gene will leak out and follow lytic cycle. Kingdom Anamalia Backbone/no Backbone Notocord: cartilage in fetus -> spine Dorsal: spine with nerve cords that branches to body Gills: side slits in pharynx for breathing Symmetry Radical: same no matter how you cut it Asymmetrical: you know Bilateral: symmetry when cut vertically in the centre Germ Layers Ectoderm: most outer layer Mesoderm: middle layer Endoderm: most inner layer First Animals Sponges: one way opening for excretion and eating, flagella, sifts nutrients form water, diffusion Jellyfish: simple nervous system, extracellular digestion, no organs or tissues, thin skin Worms: soil, one way digestion, simple excretory system Flat worms: disctinctive head Segmented Worm: earth worms, each tube has it’s own set of organs Unit 5: Plants Plants have vascular tissue and different reproduction compared to protists Types of Plants: Non-Vascular Plants: No stem, leaf, or root structures, diffusion, requires moist environmentt Vascular Plant: Have leaves and stems, Transfers nutrients within plants, sometimes sporesGymnosperms: Specifically designed to survive winter by having specialized leaves to keep water Angiosperms: Uses flowers and fruits to carry gametophytes (seeds enclosed in them) Monocots: Angiosperms with 1 seed leaf (embryos on the underside of the leaf) Dicots: Angiosperms with 2 seed leaves Plant seed Plumule: tiny leaves above epicotyl: embryonic leaves > First Leaves Epicotyl: upper part of the seed > upper stem Hypocotyl: upper part of the seed > lower stem Radicle: lower part of embryonic seed > roots Cotyledons: one of 2 immature leaves in the embryo, energy source > Leaves Seed Coat: surrounds and protects seed, prevents water loss > breaks away and decomposes Food supply: stores the starches, oils, and other nutrients for the embryo Monocot Properties: -One Cotyledon -Parallel seed veins -Stem vascular bundles scattered -Flower pedals multiples of 3 Dicot Properties: -2 Cotyledons -Net like leaf veins -Vascular bundles arranged in a ring -Flower pedals multiple of 4 Vascular Tissues Translocation: the movement of material from one part of the plant to another Xylem: -Moves water down -Long hollow tube of Non living cells -flu
More Less

Related notes for MGAB03H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.