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Lecture

freb84NOTES.docx

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Department
French
Course Code
FREB84H3
Professor
Sylvia Mittler

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Vieillée -Tradition of story telling au Terre-Neuve -Lasted mainly until 1940, as life was very structured and revolved around fishing -After 1940 we see immigration and Histoire des Francophones de la Baie Saint-Georges et de la presqu’île de port-au- port -la culture de la population française de Terre-Neuve est le produit d’une série de circonstances historiques complexes -à partir de la fin du XVIIIe siècle, des familles acadiennes de la Nouvelle-Ecosse sont venues s’installer à l’intérieur de la baie Saint-Georges, des pêcheurs originaires du nord de la France ont commencé à déserter leurs vaisseaux pour chercher une vie nouvelle parmi les colons acadiens -une culture traditionnelle basée sur l’agriculture domestique, un autre élément à considérer est la présence d’une population croissante de colons d’origines écossaise et anglaise (grande influence) -les Franco-Terreneuviens ont essayé de tenir bon et de rester fideles aux traditions et à la langue de leurs aïeux -ces forces assimilatrices ont servi à limiter les ressources disponibles pour la préservation et la promotion de la minorité francophone de Terre-Neuve La pêche française à terre-Neuve du XVIe au XIXe siècle -la pêche : le début d’une industrie qui allait devenir la source d’une concurrence entre l’Angleterre et la France, concurrence économique mais qui reflétait en réalité la lutte politique amère entre l’Angleterre et la France -la question du contrôle de la pêche errante et sédentaire a dominé la politique de cette province -en 1713, la France et l’Angleterre signèrent le traité d’Utrecht, qui mit fin à la guerre de la succession d’Espagne, et la France abandonna la colonie de Plaisance et céda à l’Angleterre toutes ses possessions sur l’île de Terre-Neuve -le maintien du pouvoir naval de la France àsymbolisa le statut et la force de présence d’une nation sur la scène mondiale -c’est ainsi que la pêche à Terre-Neuve était subventionnée par le gouvernement français, ce qui avait le double avantage de fournir des équipages à la marine nationale et de permettre aux armateurs de vendre leur poisson à un prix défiant -Les Français avaient perdu tous leurs droits de possession à Terre-Neuve et, même s’il conservaient un droit de pêche sur une partie de la côte du Petit Nord nommée le French Shore Colonisation du French Shore : baie Saint-Georges-peninsule de Port-auPort -la présence d’un premier colon vers 1760-1770 -Les Jersiais étaient des pêcheurs colons de langue française qui avaient fondé une petite colonie dans la baie Saint-Georges vers le début de la deuxième moitié du XVIIIe siècle (qui vivaient de la pêche du saumon) -1760-1780, les Acadiens commencèrent à quitter l’île du Cap-Breton pour s’établir à demeure sur le French Shore de Terre-Neuve -après la guerre de la succession d’Espagne, la région de l’Acadie en Nouvelle-Ecosse fut cédée aux Anglais, qui considéraient la présence des Acadiens comme essentielle à la consolidation de cette nouvelle possession. Afin de convaincre les Acadiens de rester sur leurs terres comme sujets anglais, on leur permit de garder leur langue, de pratiquer leur religion et même de conserver leur code de droit civil àen 1755 les Acadiens furent les victimes d’une tragédie humaine, la seule manière d’assurer la domination anglaise en Nouvelle-Ecosse était « L’élimination » des Acadiens, et les Acadiens furent déportés en masse et envoyés en bateaux -les Acadiens étaient de bons fermiers (vaches, moutons, cochons, cheval) -vers 1850, la population à la baie Saint-Georges était dominée par des Acadiens, les francophones constituaient presque 80% de la population de la colonie -la péninsule de Port-au-Port située nord de la baie -on remarque que la plupart des colons de la péninsule de Port-au-Port étaient des Français et que les Acadiens étaient beaucoup moins nombreux ici qu’à la baie Saint- Georges -les Acadiens, même s’ils pratiquaient la pêche sédentaire, étaient principalement des agriculteurs et des éleveurs, et la terre était beaucoup plus fertile à l’intérieur de la baie Saint-Georges qu’elle ne l’était sur la presqu’île (une fois fondées, les colonies de Saint- Georges et de la côte sud de la baie attiraient des nouveaux venus qui trouvaient beaucoup plus facile de s’integrer dans une communauté déjà établie Le déclin de l’influence française à Terre-Neuve (1875-1904) -les gouvernements de la France et de la Grande-Bretagne signèrent un modus vivendi, accord qui définira les droits de deux nations -1904, la France renonçait « aux privilèges établis à son profit par l’article 13 du traité d’Utrecht et confirmé ou modifié par des dispositions postérieures, cette date marque aussi la fin de la présence française dans la baie Saint-Georges et la presqu’île de Port-au-Port La période post traité (1904-1992) -après 1904, le gouvernement anglais de Terre-Neuve exerçant un contrôle absolu sur tous les aspects de la vie sur la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve, l’influence de la culture dominante anglaise -sans la présence française, les écoles, les églises, le commerce se trouvèrent envahis par la langue anglaise (anglophones=un statut social supérieur) -l’anglais devint très vite la langue officielle d’enseignement, la valeur de l’individu (l’anglicisation) -les mariages avec des femmes anglophones, ce qui transforma le foyer en un lieu d’interaction et de communication en anglais et le français se mit à disparaître comme langue au foyer -les mesures en vue d’une revalorisation du patrimone àen 1971 les habitants de Cap- Saint-Georges fondèrent l’Association des Terre-Neuviens français, en 1974 l’on se mit à recevoir de Montréal des émissions de télévision de la chaine française de Radio Canada et 1975 la première école bilingue fut fondée au Cap Les versions de Ti Jean (1) Version A La Bete-à-sept-têtes -TJ a quitté sa maison paternelle au début de l’histoire -Un chèvre suit TJ pensent son chemin, qui a été échangé à un homme contre trois chiens qui s’appellent; a) Dévore-tout b) Vas-y c) Défends-ton-maître -TJ travaille pour un roi comme un jeune vacher, à qui le roi confié son troupeau de vaches -Un jour la princesse va sacrificié au bête-a-sept-tetes (B7), et TJ la sauver avec l’aide de ses chiens. -TJ a mis les langues du B7 sur un mouchoir avec les initiales de la princesse -La princesse se rencontre un charbonnier en retour au chateau, qui ménace la princesse de dire que c’est lui qui a tué B7 plutot que TJ. -At celebrations, TJ announced that it was he who killed B7, and he had the toungues to prove for it. The king granted him the hand to his daughter and half of his kingdom Version B La B7 -Fisherman caught a fish who told him to consume him in a certain way that he will gain three sons. Have his wife eat his heart, the fisherman eat his flesh, and the bones to the dogs. Put his dorsal fin in the garden. The boys will recognize which orange tree corresponds to them. When one orange tree falls, you will know that one of your sons is in battle. -Three sons: Va comme le vent, Brise-Barrière, Passe-Partout -One grown son, Va comme le Vent, decides to go live in Paris, in the big city, where he saves the king’s daughter from B7 while taking all but two heads of B7. -A wanderer threatens her and demands for her hand in marriage -Day of the marriage, Va comme le vent stops the marriage by having his dog go and steal food from the party and procures the 7 tongues to prove that it was he who killed the B7 -Rest of the story… not sure, couldnt understand 3 TJ Stories a) B7 b) Prankster c) Demon story with Petite Marie Le Fils-de-l’Ourse Version A -The parents find a child of about two years accompanying a bear. The couple decided to kill the bear and raise the child who was named Fils-de-l’ourse. While growing up, the child developped very quikly and he showed strength that was greater than ordinary. His strength and his agressive behavior lead to his self exile. He trained himself physically before he left his adoptive parents and went to live on his own. He came across le Geant-aux-arbres, who introduced him to two other giants, one is unnamed and the other is Geant-au- poisson. They have a system where one person stays home to cook while the other three forages. Each time, a witch would come and beat up one of the giants with her magic broom and put them in bed. Each time, the giants would keep the reason why they were beat up a secret. When they finally decided to confront the witch, Fils-de-L’Ourse decides to go down a deep hole to confront her, strung on by a cable where the others were to pull him back up when he tugs on it. He defeats the witch, who accidentally drinks a weakening potion as opposed to a strengthening potion. The others decided to cut the rope after saving the princess, as they thought they would have no chance with her if they saved Fils-de-l’Ourse. The trapped giant got out by feeding a magical bird lots of prey and jackrabbits, who carried him out of the cave in a basket. He then finds his comrades who are fighting each other over the princess. They leave at the sight of Fils-de-L’Ourse and he marries the princess. Version B - Jean Glouse -Different name but very similar stories, BUT they’re both named Jean -Came from a family of smiths, and before leaving his family he asked his uncle to smith him a giant rod (despite its already heavy weight, Jean Glouse thought it was too light due to his incredible strength) -Jean Glouse meets three people named Fileur de Corde, Brise-Tout and Pousseur de Montage -Names describing their abilities like that of the giants in Jean l’Ourse -Theres a dwarf that beats up the three giants -Jean Glouse goes and hunts down the dwarf after damaging with his giant rod -Jean finds him in a hole, where he asks Fileur de Corde to wrap him with a rope as he is slowly let down it. Jean finds the dwarf’s minion, an old woman who helps Jean awaken the three princesses with a ‘fiole’ (potion) after he kills the dwarf -Each princess gives him a wand and a napkin with their signatures -When he was left to rot in the hole, like the other story, he had an eagle help him out of the hole. He goes to the castle with the princesses’ relics and shows the king. The three are killed and Jean marries the third princess who he fancies. Legends et contes folkloriques de guyane: Roi Cépérou et Roi Brésil: - les deux tamouchis (kingdom/regions), and they decide that every year they will meet up to have fun - Roi B has the most beautiful woman, Bélem, in the country and wants to have a man that challenges her - she is not going to accept any man that can’t jump a tauros (un taureau) over a river 10 meters wide. - Cainne, son of Roi C, who wants to wed the daughter so he agrees to take on the challenge, but has to wait on a year to train/feed the tauros and he has to feed them leafs of the taikini plant - Cainne succeeds the challenge after trying his taurus and Cainne and Bélem get married and eventually have two cities named after them Jolia: - Woman who lives with her husband who thinks she is always right - she has a dream that her husband should go out and catch some game (gibier) - he succeeds in capturing it he brings it back to Jolia who takes it and sells it - While she was selling it, she noticed different things - she saw a Brazilian with a giant sack of money and becomes jealous of their wealth - because of her jealousy she tells him that she wants to have that much money and says they have to live in another country (Oyapock) instead of Borga to make money - The husband is not really supporting of the idea but because her dream was true so he listens - and they move - They get to Oyapock, a Brazilian helps them settle in this new land by giving them a home + land - he only tells them that they cannot touch a single tree on the mountain otherwise misfortune will come (connection Adam et Eva quand ils ont pris le pomme) - Jolia doesn’t believe the Brazilian because of her jealousy (they have something she can’t have) and removes a tree from the ground - as a result all the trees on the mountain fell down around them - shortly after their new land burst into flames and everything that they had just received to live off of died around them - The husband questions and voices his opinion, his wife tells him why she is doing this (in this story the man in subservient to the woman which is not see in most other stories (theme: feminism)) - Jolia still wants to be rich and she takes corn that seems to belong to no one but as a result she is chased by a giant pack of horseflies (taon) and she “got a shit load of bruises” (Danny, 3:47, Feb 24, 2014) and then they went home - Moral of story: “L’ambition est mauvaise conseillère” La moustique et l’oreille: - Mosquito’s (Maringouin) wife was very sick, so he asks the ear (Zôrè) to help him by bringing this bottle and 100 francs to get some rum to make a cure for his wife. - the ear goes home and and says to his wife that he is now rich, and the mosquito’s money is now his - to protect himself the ear goes to the hand and says the mosquito has sometihng against him and the mosquito’s sound bothers him - he tells the hand if we hear that sound and slap it - the mosquito eventually says to his wife that the money is not worth getting killed over and apparently gives up his chase for his 100 francs - this is story explaining why we swat mosquitoes when we hear them in our ear Maître Elphège Tortue, Notaire du Roi: - MER ate a frog and the king finds out about this and says that he has 24 hours to pay back the king back for the frog he ate and will be hung - MER decides to trick other animals into getting him the money - First he tells the rooster, le Coq, that he will take his 50000 francs for the night and interest, the rooster says ok. Next he goes to Aïra, the fox, and says he needs 100000 francs and he will give back interest and Aïra says ok. Thirdly he goes to Rosias the tiger and asks for 150000, and he says he will give you interest PLUS 25 pieces of the best beef, tiger says ok *interest is the other animal because each animal is
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